Project #11607 - Nervous System

- Can be answered in just simple point form

- Class notes related are attached


Nervous System – Conceptual Questions

1. Adele was enjoying her weekly shopping trip with her daughter, when quite suddenly,

she had difficulty forming her words and understanding what she wanted to say and

putting words together to make sentences. Adele has also lost sensation on the right

side of her body and was unable to move her right leg and right arm. Adele’s daughter

rushed her to hospital, where she was diagnosed as having a stroke that damaged

many functional areas of her brain.

With reference to the above scenario and your knowledge of the nervous system,

answer the following questions. (25 marks in total)


a) Using your knowledge of the functional areas of the cerebrum, why has Adele’s

brain damage rendered her unable to speak, and understand the written and

spoken language. And why has Adele lost the use of her right arm and right leg,

along with reduced sensation in the same areas? (10 marks)


b) Although the medulla oblongata is one of the smallest sections of the brain,

injury to this region may result in death, whereas damage to the cerebrum may

go unnoticed? Using your knowledge of the medulla oblongata, why could

damage to this region of the brain stem result in Adele’s death. (7 marks)


Prior to Adele’s stroke, her brain played an active role in most of her biological

processes through the generation of nerve impulses. But nervous tissue contains more

than neurons transmitting impulses. Supporting cells are five to fifty times more

numerous in nervous tissue than neurons.


c) Name the supporting cells of the central nervous system. How does each of

these cells participate in supporting the activities of nervous tissue in the CNS.

(8 marks)


2. Isla has just moved out of her family home to live with friends in a rental flat. At home

and alone one night, Isla hears gun shots and screams coming from the flat next door.

Isla is terrified. She quickly turns off the lights and hides in her wardrobe. Apply your

knowledge of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) to answer the following

questions. (25 marks in total)


a) Activation of the sympathetic division of the ANS, and the release of hormones

from the adrenal medulla, set in motion a series of physiological responses

collectively called the ‘fight-flight’ response. How do the physiological changes

that occur in Isla’s body help to prepare her to deal with the potentially

threatening situation occurring in the flat next door. (8 marks)


Isla stays in the wardrobe until her flat mates get home a short time later. They inform

her that they have been in the flat next door watching a horror movie. Isla realised that

the gun shots and screams must have been from that movie.


b) The physiological effects that helped prepare Isla for the threat are now

subsiding and she feels calmer. Her body is returning to its resting state. The

parasympathetic division of the ANS is responsible for returning Isla’s body to

the resting state? Explain why it is also called an energy conservation /

restoration system? (5 marks)


c) Autonomic reflexes are responses that occur when nerve impulses pass through

an autonomic reflex arc. By outlining the components of an autonomic reflex arc,

explain how a reflex is produced. (5 marks)


d) The body is able to respond quickly to certain stimuli because of rapid

conduction of impulses along neurons. How does the structure of an axon

enhance the speed of conduction? How else does this axonal structure

participate in homeostasis? (7 marks)


3. “In its broadest definition, sensation is the conscious or subconscious awareness of

changes in the external and internal environment”. Whether consciously perceived or

not, sensation is vital to the homeostatic balance in the body. (25 marks in total)

a) With reference to the above statement, outline the Process of Sensation, from

detection to awareness. (4 marks)


b) Based on the type of stimulus they detect, give six (6) examples of sensory

receptors. How do these sensory receptors respond to changes in the internal

and external environment, and give a location in the body where each would be

found. (12 marks)


c) Nerve impulses propagate rapidly along neurons, and at times they are required

to synapse with another neuron to continue the impulse. Explain how neurons

communicate with each other, via chemical synapses, to continue or discontinue

an impulse. (5 marks)


d) Receptors located in skeletal muscles, in tendons, and in and around joints

detect changes related to muscle tone, movement of the body parts, and position

of the body. With this in mind, outline how two (2) kinaesthetic (proprioceptive)

sensory receptors participate in maintaining homeostasis in the tissues they

reside in. (4 marks)

Subject Science
Due By (Pacific Time) 09/06/2013 12:00 am
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