Project #24476 - quiz

Psych 301, Biological Bases of Behavior, Common Exam, Version A 


Section: Multiple Choice

There are 50 multiple choice questions (50 points). Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.   Use Answer Sheet Document to enter answers


 

 

1.  

Which of the following statements is consistent with how a behavioral neuroscientist (physiological psychologist, biopsychologist) would solve the mind-body problem?

 

 

 

A

The mind is a product produced by the operations of the nervous system. 

 

B

The body can influence the mind through the actions of the pineal gland. 

 

C

The mind is spiritual, while the body is made from matter. 

 

D

The mind can exist apart from the body 

 

E

The body is physical, but the mind is not. 

 

2.  

The key property of addictive drugs relates to

 

 

A

their ability to inhibit dopamine in brain.

 

B

the withdrawal that follows termination of the drug.

 

C

their reinforcing effects. 

 

D

their capacity to produce tolerance. 

 

E

their ability to rapidly produce physical dependence. 

 

3.  

Behavioral Neuroscience (Biopsychology, Physiological Psychology) emphasizes that

 

 

A

success in the neurosciences depends on cooperation among its many disciplines. 

 

B

the discipline of neuroscience mostly focuses on the relation between the nervous system and behavior. 

 

C

it comprises several subdivisions, each of which favors a different research approach. 

 

D

failure to follow the basic principles of scientific inquiry can lead to potentially dangerous conclusions 

 

E

all of the above. 

 

4.  

Which is NOT an important principle of the study devoted to the biological bases of behavior (behavioral neuroscience, psychobiology, physiological psychology):

 

 

 

A

The Nervous System controls and responds to body functions and directs behavior 

 

B

Nervous System structure and function are determined by both genes and environment throughout life 

 

C

Every behavior can be explained solely by reference to the brain 

 

D

The brain Is the foundation of the mind making learning, memory, language and other processes possible 

 

E

Research leads to understanding that is essential for development of therapies for Nervous System disorders 

 

5.  

The main reason why Long Term Potentiation (LTP) is one of the most widely studied neuroscientific phenomena is that it

 

 

A

involves a synaptic change similar to the synaptic change that has been hypothesized to be the basis of memory storage. 

 

B

can easily be studied in humans. 

 

C

involves readily accessible neocortical circuits 

 

D

occurs only in mammals. 

 

E

can be induced by both electrical and chemical stimulation.

 

6.  

Stages of sleep are easily distinguished by

 

 

A

changes in respiration. 

 

B

the quality and quantity of dreams. 

 

C

changes in the electrical activity of the brain. 

 

D

changes in consciousness. 

 

7.  

A person is asked to take part in an experiment that is examining brain areas associated with changes in verb generation and mathematical problem solving. Which of these techniques are the experimenters likely to use

 

 

A

Computed Tomography 

 

B

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 

 

C

Electroencephalogam 

 

D

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging 

 

E

Diffusion Tensor Imaging 

 

8.  

Which of the following is NOT an advantage for using non-human animals in biopsychological research:

 

 

A

Brains of animals are less complex 

 

B

There are fewer ethical constraints on nonhuman animal research 

 

C

Models of several species makes comparative research possible

 

D

They can not provide information about any human cognitive process 

 

9.  

Study of the function of the living human brain is difficult for all the following reasons, EXCEPT

 

 

A

 it is unethical to induce brain damage in humans for the purpose of research.

 

B

brain damage is rarely the same from case to case. 

 

C

it is difficult to obtain the brain of a person who has suffered brain damage. 

 

D

researchers have to wait for the natural death of a brain-damaged human to verify the location of the brain damage.

 

E

a damaged brain gives us little information about brain structure and function in the living brain.

 

10.  

EEG recordings of human brain activity provide all the following information, EXCEPT

 

 

A

monitoring brain function during brain surgery.

 

B

diagnosis of epilepsy. 

 

C

study of sleep cycles. 

 

D

study of wakefulness. 

 

E

pure view of neural activity. 

 

11.  

The key rationale for lesion studies is that

 

 

A

the change in behavior that follows a brain lesion can give important clues about a function of an ablated brain area.

 

B

lesions are simple to create within the brain. 

 

C

brain lesions are specific for fibers of passage. 

 

D

brain lesions reliably produce marked and observable changes in behaviors. 

 

E

most lesions are temporary. 

 

12.  

One of the oldest methods used in neuroscience to study brain function is

 

 

A

immunocytochemistry.

 

B

stereotaxic surgery. 

 

C

autoradiography. 

 

D

experimental ablation. 

 

E

the study of twins. 

 

13.  

Sensitization, an increased behavioral effect of drug with repeated administration, has been demonstrated quite frequently after repeated administration of __________

 

 

A

Fluoxetine 

 

B

Cocaine 

 

C

Lithium 

 

D

Alcohol 

 

E

Chlorpromazine 

 

14.  

Studies have shown which of the following is a function of the right hemisphere?

 

 

A

the processing of tactile information 

 

B

the comprehension of emotions 

 

C

the capacity to recognize the emotional content of hand gestures 

 

D

the ability to communicate using language 

 

E

the ability to read and write 

 

15.  

Facial expressions of many emotions appear to be universal. Children as young as 6 months are even capable of discriminating these emotional expressions. What area of the brain is thought to be responsible for the recognition of emotional facial expressions, particularly the negative emotions like fear?

 

 

A

the hypothalamus 

 

B

the amygdala 

 

C

the occipital lobe 

 

D

the hippocampus 

 

E

the thalamus 

 

16.  

Research has shown that the capacity of some human couples to pair bond may reflect the activity of

 

 

A

oxytocin and dopamine. 

 

B

glutamate and glycine. 

 

C

dopamine and vasopressin. 

 

D

vasopressin and oxytocin. 

 

E

acetylcholine and norepinephrine. 

 

17.  

Research has shown that the drug ________ releases serotonin and has been used to treat ________.

 

 

A

fluoxetine; depression 

 

B

fenfluramine; obesity 

 

C

amphetamine; obesity 

 

D

reserpine; obesity 

 

E

fluoxetine; mania 

 

18.  

Twin studies indicate that

 

 

A

there is a genetic basis for homosexuality in males as well as in females. 

 

B

early family environment is more important than genes for the development of homosexuality. 

 

C

a male child whose older twin sisters are heterosexual is more likely to be homosexual.

 

D

homosexual women are likely to have homosexual male relatives.

 

E

identical male twins are less likely to be concordant for homosexuality than are fraternal male twins. 

 

19.  

René Descartes would be most comfortable with which of the following statements?

 

 

A

The universe is a mental construction. 

 

B

The body is a hallucination generated by the mind. 

 

C

The body is made of matter; the mind is not. 

 

D

Everything is made of matter and energy.

 

E

Reflexes are noted in humans, but not in animals.

 

20.  

Activation of the ________ elicits various behavioral, autonomic, and hormonal emotional responses.

 

 

A

nucleus accumbens

 

B

central nucleus of the amygdala 

 

C

orbitofrontal cortex 

 

D

medial geniculate nucleus 

 

E

posterior intralaminar thalamic nucleus

 

21.  

Which statement about sleep is false?

 

 

A

REM sleep patterns are similar in all species.

 

B

Sleep is a useful behavior. 

 

C

Everyone dreams. 

 

D

All vertebrates show sleep

 

E

Mammals and birds show signs of REM sleep

 

 22.  

L-DOPA is a standard treatment for

 

 

A

epilepsy. 

 

B

stroke. 

 

C

obesity. 

 

D

Parkinson's disease. 

 

E

anorexia nervosa. 

 

23.  

Damage to which dopaminergic (DA) system would be expected to produce muscle tremors, limb rigidity, and difficulty in movement control

 

 

A

nigrostriatal DA system 

 

B

hypothalamocortical DA system 

 

C

mesocortical DA system 

 

D

nesolimbic DA system 

 

E

corticospinal DA system 

 

24.  

A person who is admitted to a hospital emergency room with an opiate overdose is likely to be treated with

 

 

A

heroin. 

 

B

THC. 

 

C

naloxone 

 

D

mu opioid receptor agonists. 

 

E

kappa opioid receptor agonists. 

 

25.  

Research studies indicate which neurotransmitter acts to facilitate learning?

 

 

A

dopamine 

 

B

norepinephrine 

 

C

acetylcholine 

 

D

serotonin 

 

E

GABA 

 

26.  

Based on the study of Patient H.M., it has been concluded that

 

 

A

short-term memories are stored within the hippocampus. 

 

B

the hippocampus is required for retrieval of long-term memories. 

 

C

long-term memories are stored within the hippocampus. 

 

D

the hippocampus converts short-term memories into long-term memories.

 

E

damage to the hippocampus results in severe retrograde amnesia.

 

27.  

Which of the following is true of learning?

 

 

A

Learning and memory are synonymous. 

 

B

Memories are related to the electrical activity of the brain. 

 

C

Learning involves the modification of the nervous system by experiences. 

 

D

Experiences are stored in the brain in separate folders, like those of a filing cabinet. 

 

E

Learning is possible in the absence of memory. 

 

28.  

The distinction between implicit (nondeclarative) and explicit (declarative) memories is that

 

 

A

implicit memories are rapidly forgotten. 

 

B

explicit memories are unavailable to consciousness. 

 

C

we are unable to talk about implicit memories. 

 

D

hippocampal damage impairs implicit, but not explicit memory. 

 

E

patients with anterograde amnesia generally have problems with implicit memory 

 

29.  

Verbal behavior is said to be a lateralized function of the left hemisphere in that

 

 

A

most language problems are noted after damage to the right rather than the left hemisphere. 

 

B

most language problems are noted after damage to the left rather than the right hemisphere. 

 

C

right-handed persons are more likely to have their language center located within the right hemisphere. 

 

D

electrical stimulation of the left hemisphere has a smaller effect on language than does similar stimulation of the right hemisphere. 

 

E

most persons show a greater movement of the lips on the right side of their mouth during speech. 

 

30.  

Imagine that you are suffering from overly intense emotional reactions that conventional therapies do not alleviate. Based on the evidence cited in your text, which brain region would be considered as a target for ablation to provide relief for your intense emotional reactions?

 

 

A

central nucleus of the amygdala 

 

B

ventromedial hypothalamus 

 

C

medial nucleus of the amygdala 

 

D

corpus callosum 

 

E

the hypothalamic complex 

 

31.  

Johannes Müller, one of the first scientists to advocate the use of experimental techniques in physiology, proposed

 

 

A

an important role for natural selection in the evolution of behavior. 

 

B

that language is a function of the right hemisphere.

 

C

that sensations depend on the particular sensory system activated. 

 

D

that the pineal body interconnects the body with the mind.

 

E

that the amygdala controls thought and emotion.

 

32.  

Based on his observation of brain damage and behavioral difficulties in a stroke victim, Paul Broca concluded that: 

 

 

A

the control of speech is a function of the left hemisphere. 

 

B

the right hemisphere controls motor movements on the right side of the body.

 

C

damage to the right hemisphere impairs speech.

 

D

different regions of the brain control heart rate and breathing, purposeful movements, and sensory function. 

 

E

muscle atrophy after a stroke results from a loss of fluid pressure within the brain ventricles. 

 

33.  

Damage to the basal ganglia would be expected to produce difficulties in

 

 

A

speech perception 

 

B

emotional experience. 

 

C

understanding social rules. 

 

D

motor movements. 

 

E

emotional memories. 

 

34.  

Imagine that all members of your class have been tested to determine the level of 5-HIAA, a metabolite of serotonin, in their cerebrospinal fluid. Which of the following would you predict using this information?

 

 

A

Male classmates with low 5-HIAA levels will be more aggressive than those with high levels. 

 

B

Low 5-HIAA levels will be associated with good exam performance.

 

C

High 5-HIAA levels will be associated with poor sleep patterns in males.

 

D

Male classmates with high 5-HIAA levels may not be alive 10 years from now.

 

E

Those with low 5-HIAA levels will be the thinnest persons in the class. 

 

35.  

A female rat is ovariectomized and then injected with testosterone immediately after birth. In adulthood, this rat is injected with estradiol and progesterone and placed in a cage with a male rat. This female rat will

 

 

A

show evidence of maternal aggression. 

 

B

attempt to mount the male. 

 

C

show lordosis to the male rat. 

 

D

not show female sexual behaviors. 

 

E

show behavioral masculinization. 

 

36.  

Which of the following supports the notion that heredity contributes to differences in body weight?

 

 

A

Pima Indians in the US and Mexico share the same genes, but only those persons who live in a particular environment develop obesity. 

 

B

Several forms of human obesity involve a deficit in ghrelin production, which can be treated by ghrelin injection. 

 

C

Twin studies indicate that genes account for 25 percent of the variability in body fat accumulated when people are fed a high-fat diet. 

 

D

Twin studies indicate that genes account for little of the variability in body fat accumulated when people are fed a high-fat diet. 

 

E

Adoption studies fail to show a role for heredity in obesity. 

 

37.  

The proposition that facial expressions of emotion are innate is supported by research in which

 

 

A

blind children show different facial emotional expressions than do sighted persons.

 

B

facial expressions of emotion vary by culture. 

 

C

the same facial expression for an emotion is observed in all cultures.

 

D

facial expressions of emotion change over time in a culture. 

 

E

people who live in isolated cultures show very different facial expressions from people who are not 

 

38.  

All of the following statements about the genetic basis of schizophrenia are true EXCEPT that

 

 

A

adoption studies indicate a biological basis for schizophrenia.

 

B

the concordance rate for schizophrenia is higher for monozygotic than for dizygotic twins. 

 

C

a person with a "schizophrenia gene" will always develop schizophrenia.

 

D

several genes may be involved in schizophrenia. 

 

E

genes impart a susceptibility to develop schizophrenia. 

 

39.  

Research on the genetics of drug dependence indicates that

 

 

A

alcoholism and smoking are independent diseases.

 

B

alcoholism and smoking share common genetic factors. 

 

C

smokers are high in status and achievement, but low in sensation seeking. 

 

D

alcoholics are high in status and achievement, but low in sensation seeking.

 

E

environment plays a minimal role in drug abuse. 

 

40.  

Which of the following is strong evidence for a genetic contribution to a behavior

 

 

A

Dizygotic twins have a higher concordance rate than do monozygotic twins.

 

B

Monozygotic twins have a higher concordance rate than do dizygotic twins. 

 

C

Heterozygotic twins have a lower concordance rate than do monozygotic twins 

 

D

Adopted children resemble their adopted families with regard to a trait.

 

E

None of the above are correct.

 

41.  

Synaptic plasticity (i.e., changes in the structure or biochemistry of synapses that alters postsynaptic receptors) has been demonstrated most frequently in which psychological phenomena:

 

 

A

motivation 

 

B

stress 

 

C

learning 

 

D

emotions 

 

E

perception 

 

42.  

Experience stimulates the production of ____________ to produce brain plasticity in the form of enduring structural changes 

 

 

A

neurotransmitters 

 

B

hormones 

 

C

neurotrophic factors 

 

D

genes 

 

E

DNA 

 

43.  

The process of neurogenesis (i.e., the creation of new neurons in the brain) has been described most frequently in which brain region:

 

 

A

nucleus accumbens 

 

B

hippocampus 

 

C

amygdala 

 

D

thalamus 

 

E

reticular formation 

 

44.  

The role of neural reorganization in recovery of function after brain damage can be described as

 

 

A

controversial, but it is assumed to play some role. 

 

B

recently well-understood. 

 

C

well-understood only in lower mammals

 

D

well-established. 

 

E

incorrect and has been rejected 

 

45.  

The development of new neurons in adult brains can be described by the following EXCEPT:

 

 

A

adult brains are capable of major adaptation. 

 

B

adult brains are not as plastic as developing brains. 

 

C

adult brains are set in their own ways. 

 

D

new neurons created in adult brains can be integrated into existing neural circuits 

 

E

new neurons created in adult brains can be influenced by the environment or behavior of the organism 

 

46.  

An effective treatment for unipolar depression involves

 

 

A

lithium salts. 

 

B

electroconvulsive shock therapy. 

 

C

drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin or norepinephrine. 

 

D

sleep deprivation. 

 

E

drugs that inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAOi).

 

47.  

Fluoxetine (Prozac) is an effective treatment for ________ that works by ________.

 

 

A

schizophrenia; blocking dopamine receptors 

 

B

depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder; blocking serotonin reuptake 

 

C

nxiety disorders; inhibition of MAO

 

D

delusions and hallucinations; blocking serotonin reuptake

 

E

obsessive-compulsive disorder; releasing glycine 

 

48.  

Which of the following supports the contention that schizophrenia is associated with brain damage?

 

 

A

The size of the lateral ventricles decreases in schizophrenic patients. 

 

B

The size of the lateral ventricles increases in schizophrenic patients. 

 

C

The neurological symptoms noted in schizophrenia are unique to this disorder. 

 

D

Control subjects are more likely to show neurological symptoms. 

 

E

Older people, who have already lost substantial numbers of neurons, are more likely to develop schizophrenia than are younger people. 

 

49.  

Methylphenidate, the most common treatment for ADHD, is likely to:

 

 

A

reduce the likelihood of activation of other neurons. 

 

B

impair dopamine neurotransmission. 

 

C

increase synaptic levels of dopamine. 

 

D

decrease synaptic levels of dopamine. 

 

E

aggravate the behavioral symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity 

 

50.  

The relatively poor ability of an autistic person to interact socially with others is likely due to

 

 

A

a failure of activation of brain areas associated with face perception.

 

B

damage to the ascending visual pathways. 

 

C

visual acuity problems. 

 

D

enhanced activity within their orbitofrontal cortex. 

 

E

an infection involving the corpus callosum. 

 


Section: Essays

There are five essay questions (50 points). Note that essays may have more than one part requiring two-three answers per essay. Each essay question will be worth 10 points.  Use answer sheet document to enter answers


 

 

51.  

The brain is made up of approximately 100 billion nerve cells, or neurons, each with many thousands of interconnections. There is communication both within these neurons and from one neuron to the next. 

 

First, describe these different forms of communication that explain how information is transmitted both (a) within the neuron and (b) between neurons. Then, discuss reasons and give examples why neuron communication is important to biopsychology.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

52.  

Historically, a significant controversy in the field of biopsychology was the question of how our behavior is a result of nature (biology, genetics, inheritance) or a result of nurture (the environment we grow up in). Today, this is an obsolete position and it is believed by most that there is an interaction among genetics and environment (or experience). The more accurate position is that “Behavior is a function of genetics, experience and current perception.”

 

Discuss this statement, citing relevant experimental evidence, in the context of at least two of the following behaviors: visual perception, birdsong communication, learning, intelligence, aggression, obesity, personality, mental disorder (i.e., schizophrenia or depression or anxiety or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

53.  

One of the most exciting findings in biopsychology is that the developing brain has the capacity for a great deal of plasticity. It is known that the brains of preadolescent individuals are more plastic than those of adults. That is, they can recover from brain injury much more rapidly and completely than adults.

 

First, describe what is meant by plasticity and the different kinds of plasticity that are possible. Then, discuss what factors might account for the differences of more rapid recovery from brain injury in preadolescents compared to adults

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

54.  

Describe two of types of biological/brain evidence (neurodevelopmental, genetic, neurotransmitter, imaging) for (a) schizophrenia and (b) depression. Describe evidence for different biological treatments that are useful for (a) schizophrenia and (b) depression Your discussion for treatments might deal with how treatments target specific clinical symptoms and their brain action. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

55.  

Identify three contributors to the development of biopsychology. Describe the ideas and/or research that the person is famous for. Discuss the reasons that their contributions are important to the field of contemporary biopsychology.

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