GO TO the CDC National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Watch the 20 minute video on workplace violence (program 1). You can watch on your computer or download it. Answer the following questions:
1. Which industries have the highest rates of workplace violence?
2. What three types of interactions are responsible for violence in the workplace (who is involved?)
3. Which are the only two states with an OSHA plan?
4. The film talks about Environmental, Administrative, and Behavioral prevention strategies. What is one example of each identified in the film?
(See attached drowning worksheet and Haddon Matrix.)
Consider what we know about water related drowning among young children in Las Vegas.
Look for some additional information to help you think about a variety of risk factors and
prevention/intervention strategies. (Hint: Check the Southern Nevada Health District
1. Complete the Haddon Matrix with both risk factors and possible prevention and
intervention measures for each phase and Host/Agent/Environment factor. (write neatly
or use additional paper please)
2. Consider the risk factors and prevention/intervention strategies you wrote down.
a) Identify at least one educational countermeasure, one technological
countermeasure and one legal countermeasure that you think would be most
b) For each countermeasure identify who the countermeasure would target
c) For each countermeasure identify at least one pro and cos of the countermeasure
3. For each countermeasure identify which of the 10 countermeasure strategies are
The Haddon Matrix- Information
The Haddon Matrix is a tool used for planning injury interventions. The Haddon Matrix
encourages creative thinking about injury problems and their possible solutions. The
organization of the matrix helps to focus attention on injury control strategies directed
toward host, agent, and environment (physical and social/cultural) at different points in
time. Like the public health model of disease control, the Haddon Matrix targets the three factors of an injury event: host, agent, and environment (including physical, social,
economic, and cultural settings). But the Haddon Matrix adds another dimension: time.
The matrix provides a structure for identifying potential interventions across three
phases of the injury event: pre-event, event, and post-event.
The pre-event phase includes everything that determines whether the event takes
• What factors contribute to an increased risk for an event to occur?
• What kinds of interventions or preventive measures could have been implemented
before the injury occurred?
The event phase encompasses the injury event itself, and all that determines the nature
and severity of the injury.
• What factors contribute to an increased injury risk and severity of injury at the time of
an injury event?
• What kinds of interventions or preventive measures could have prevent or reduce the
severity of injury when it occurs?
The post-event phase occurs after the event, including anything that determines
whether the injury is limited, exacerbated, or repaired.
• What factors contribute to an increased risk for additional injuries after an even has
• What kinds of interventions could limit or reduce the severity of injuries that have
already occurred and/or reduce the risk of additional injury after an event has
Think about host, agent and environmental factors at each phase.
Think about possible preventive and intervention strategies related to the host, agent
and environment at each phase.
When creating a Haddon matrix, the focus should be on thinking creatively about
solutions to the problem of injury and identifying as many opportunities to intervene as
possible. The Haddon matrix reminds us that interventions can go into effect before,
during, and after an injury event.
Drowning Fact Sheet
Drowning is the second leading cause of unintentional injury-related deaths to children
ages 14 and under. A temporary lapse in supervision is a common factor in most
drownings and near-drownings. Child drownings can happen in a matter of seconds--in
the time it takes to answer the phone. There is often no splashing to warn of trouble.
Children can drown in small quantities of water and are at risk in their own homes from
wading pools, bathtubs, buckets, diaper pails, and toilets as well as swimming pools,
spas, and hot tubs.
Deaths and Injuries
• A swimming pool is 14 times more likely than a motor vehicle to be involved in the
death of a child age 4 and under.
• Each year, approximately 1,150 children ages 14 and under drown; more than half
are preschoolers (ages 0-4).
• Each year, an estimated 5,000 children ages 14 and under are hospitalized due to
• Of children surviving near-drownings, 5-20 percent suffer severe and permanent
Where Drownings Happen
• Approximately 50 percent of preschooler drownings occur in residential swimming
• Each year, more than 2,000 preschooler near-drownings occur in residential pools.
• Of preschooler pool drownings, 65 percent occur in the child's home pool and 33
percent at the homes of friends, neighbors or relatives.
• Each year, 350 drownings (for all ages) happen in bathtubs.
• Each year, approximately 40 children drown in five-gallon buckets.
• In ten states--Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Hawaii, Montana, Nevada,
Oregon, Utah, and Washington-- drowning surpasses all other causes of death to
children ages 14 and under.
How and When Drownings Happen
• Of all preschoolers who drown, 70 percent are in the care of one of both parents at
the time of the drowning.
• Of all preschoolers who drown, 75 percent are missing from sight for five minutes
• Two-thirds of all drownings happen between May and August.
• Of all drownings, 40 percent occur on Saturdays and Sundays.
• Children drown during routine household activities, with adults present and
providing normal levels of supervision.
• Most children who drowned or nearly drowned were last seen in the house or away
from the pool or spa.
Who is at Risk
• Of all age groups, children ages 1-4 have the highest drowning death rate.
• American Indian and Alaska Native children ages 14 and under have a drowning
death rate that is nearly two times higher than white children. A total of 55
percent of these drowning deaths occur in natural bodies of water.
• African-American children ages 4 and under have a drowning death rate that is
lower than white children and lower than children in the overall population.
• African-American children ages 5-14 have a drowning death rate that is nearly
three times higher than white children.
• Health care costs per near-drowning victim typically range from $75,000 for initial
emergency room treatment to $180,000 a year for long-term care.
• The annual economic costs of residential pool drownings and near-drownings of
young children are estimated to be $450 million to $650 million.
• While there is no substitute for adult supervision, safeguards and barriers around
pools and hot tubs provide additional protection for children.
• Estimates predict that the widespread use of pool fencing would prevent 50-90
percent of pediatric pool drownings and near-drownings.
|Due By (Pacific Time)||03/10/2014 12:00 am|
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