(1). Define each of the following terms:

Population Dependent variable

Sample Constant

Data Statistic

Variable Parameter

Independent variable

(2). what are four methods of acquiring knowledge? Write

a short paragraph describing the essential characteristics

of each.

(4). Write a short paragraph comparing naturalistic observation

and true experiments.

(5). Distinguish between descriptive and inferential statistics.

Use examples to illustrate the points you make

(8). Indicate which of the following situations involve

descriptive statistics and which involve inferential

statistics:

a. An annual stockholders’ report details the assets of

the corporation.

b. A history instructor tells his class the number of

students who received an A on a recent exam.

c. The mean of a sample set of scores is calculated to

characterize the sample.

d. The sample data from a poll are used to estimate

the opinion of the population.

e. A correlational study is conducted on a sample to

determine whether educational level and income in

the population are related.

f. A newspaper article reports the average salaries of

federal employees from data collected on all federal

employees.

(9). For each of the following, identify the sample and

population scores:

a. A social psychologist interested in drinking behavior

investigates the number of drinks served in

bars in a particular city on a Friday during “happy

hour.” In the city, there are 213 bars. There are too

many bars to monitor all of them, so she selects 20

and records the number of drinks served in them.

The following are the data:

50 82 47 65

40 76 61 72

35 43 65 76

63 66 83 82

57 72 71 58

social

b. To make a profit t from a restaurant that specializes

in low-cost quarter-pound hamburgers, it is necessary

that each hamburger served weigh very close

to 0.25 pound. Accordingly, the manager of the

restaurant is interested in the variability among the

weights of the hamburgers served each day. On a

particular day, there are 450 hamburgers served. It

would take too much time to weigh all 450, so the

manager decides instead to weigh just 15. The following

weights in pounds were obtained:

0.25 0.27 0.25

0.26 0.35 0.27

0.22 0.32 0.38

0.29 0.22 0.28

0.27 0.40 0.31

other.

c. A machine that cuts steel blanks (used for making

bolts) to their proper length is suspected of being

unreliable. The shop supervisor decides to check the

output of the machine. On the day of checking,

the machine is set to produce 2-centimeter blanks.

The acceptable tolerance is ±0.05 centimeter. It

would take too much time to measure all 600 blanks

produced in 1 day, so a representative group of 25 is

selected. The following lengths in centimeters were

obtained:

2.01 1.99 2.05 1.94 2.05

2.01 2.02 2.04 1.93 1.95

2.03 1.97 2.00 1.98 1.96

2.05 1.96 2.00 2.01 1.99

1.98 1.95 1.97 2.04 2.02

I/O

d. A physiological psychologist, working at Tacoma

University, is interested in the resting, diastolic

heart rates of all the female students attending the

university. She randomly samples 30 females from

the student body and records the following diastolic

heart rates while the students are lying on a cot.

Scores are in beats/min.

62 85 92 85 88 71

73 82 84 89 93 75

81 72 97 78 90 87

78 74 61 66 83 68

67 83 75 70 86 72

Biological

(2). Identify which of the following represent continuous

variables and which are discrete variables:

a. Time of day

b. Number of females in your class

c. Number of bar presses by a rat in a Skinner box

d. Age of subjects in an experiment

e. Number of words remembered

f. Weight of food eaten

g. Percentage of students in your class who are females

h. Speed of runners in a race

(3). Identify the scaling of each of the following variables:

a. Number of bicycles ridden by students in the freshman

class

b. Types of bicycles ridden by students in the freshman

class

c. The IQ of your teachers (assume equal interval

scaling)

d. Proficiency in mathematics, graded in the categories

of poor, fair, and good

e. Anxiety over public speaking, scored on a scale of

0–100 (Assume the difference in anxiety between

adjacent units throughout the scale is not the same.)

f. The weight of a group of dieters

g. The time it takes to react to the sound of a tone

h. Proficiency in mathematics, scored on a scale of

0–100 (The scale is well standardized and can be

thought of as having equal intervals between adjacent

units.)

i. Ratings of professors by students on a 50-point

scale (There is an insufficient basis for assuming

equal intervals between adjacent units.)

(4). A student is measuring assertiveness with an interval

scale. Is it correct to say that a score of 30 on the scale?

represents half as much assertiveness as a score of 60? Explain

(8). Find the values of the expressions listed here:

a. Find a

4

*i*_1

*Xi *for the scores *X*1 _ 3, *X*2 _ 5, *X*3 _ 7,

*X*4 _ 10.

b. Find a

6

*i*_1

*Xi *for the scores *X*1 _ 2, *X*2 _ 3, *X*3 _ 4,

*X*4 _ 6, *X*5 _ 9, *X*6 _ 11, *X*7 _ 14.

c. Find a

*N*

*i*_2

*Xi *for the scores *X*1 _ 10, *X*2 _ 12, *X*3 _ 13,

*X*4 _ 15, *X*5 _ 18.

d. Find a

*N*_1

*i*_3

*Xi *for the scores *X*1 _ 22, *X*2 _ 24, *X*3 _ 28,

*X*4 _ 35, *X*5 _ 38, *X*6 _ 40.

10. Represent each of the following with summation

notation. Assume the total number of scores is 10.

a. *X*1 _ *X*2 _ *X*3 _ *X*4_ *… *_ *X*10

b. *X*1 _ *X*2 _ *X*3

c. *X*2 _ *X*3 _ *X*4

d. *X*2

2 _ *X*3

2 _ *X*4

2 _ *X*5

2

Subject | Mathematics |

Due By (Pacific Time) | 04/30/2014 12:00 am |

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