8)Iodine monochloride, ICl, is a compound used to make carbon?based (organic) compounds that contain iodine and chlorine. It consists of diatomic molecules with one iodine atom bonded to one chlorine atom by a polar covalent bond. The chlorine atom attracts electrons more than does the iodine atom. Draw a rough sketch of the electron cloud that represents the electrons involved in the bond.
89)Draw electron?dot symbols for each of the following elements.
a. oxygen, O b. boron, B c. neon, Ne d. phosphorus, P e. carbon, C
91)To which group on the periodic table would atoms with the following electron? dot symbols belong? List the group numbers using the 1?18 convention and using the A?group convention.
a. X b. X c. X
97)Based on your knowledge of the most common bonding patterns for the
nonmetallic elements, predict the formulas with the lowest subscripts for the compounds that would form from the following pairs of elements. (For example, hydrogen and oxygen can combine to form H2O and H2O2, but H2O has lower subscripts.)
a. P and I b. O and Br c. N and Cl
101)Write the most common number of covalent bonds and lone pairs for atoms of
each of the following nonmetallic elements.
a. C c. oxygen b. phosphorus d. Br
105) Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following formulas. a. nitrogen trifluoride, NF3 (used in high?energy fuels) b. chloroethane, C2H5Cl (used to make the gasoline additive tetraethyl lead) c. hypobromous acid, HOBr (used as a wastewater disinfectant)
110) For each of the following molecular compounds, identify the atom that is most
likely to be found in the center of its Lewis structure. Explain why. a. BI3 b. SO3 c. AsH3 d. HCN
114) Draw a reasonable Lewis structure for each of the following formulas. a. H2S b. CHBr3 c. NF3 d. Br2O e. H2CO3 f. H2S2 g. HOCl h. BBr3 i. CH3CH2CHCH2
122) Although both BF3 molecules and NH3molecules have four atoms, the BF3 molecules are planar, and NH3 molecules are pyramidal. Why?
53) Describe how the strong monoprotic acid nitric acid, HNO3 (used in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels) acts when it is added to water, including a description of the nature of the particles in solution before and after the reaction with water. If there is a reversible reaction with water, describe the forward and the reverse reactions.
54) Describe how the weak monoprotic acid hydrofluoric acid, HF (used in aluminum processing) acts when it is added to water, including a description of the nature of the particles in solution before and after the reaction with water. If there is a reversible reaction with water, describe the forward and the reverse reactions.
60) Identify each of the following as strong or weak acids. a. HCl(aq) (used to make dyes) b. nitrous acid (source of nitrogen monoxide, NO, used to bleach rayon) c. H2CO3 (formed when CO2 dissolves in water)
64) For each of the following, write the chemical equation for its reaction with water. a. The monoprotic weak acid chlorous acid, HClO2 b. The monoprotic strong acid perchloric acid, HClO4
66) Write the formulas and names of the acids that are derived from adding enough H+ ions to the following ions to neutralize their charge.
68) Classify each of the following compounds as either (1) a binary ionic compound,
(2) an ionic compound with polyatomic ion(s), (3) a binary covalent compound, (4) a binary acid, or (5) an oxyacid. Write the chemical formula that corresponds to each name.
a. potassium sulfide b. sulfuric acid c. ammonium nitrate
e. copper(I) sulfate f. hydrofluoric acid g. sodium hydrogen carbonate
d. iodine pentafluoride
70) Classify each of the following formulas as either (1) a binary ionic compound, (2) an ionic compound with polyatomic ion(s), (3) a binary covalent compound, (4) a binary acid, or (5) an oxyacid. Write the name that corresponds to each formula.
a. HNO3 b. Ca(OH)2 c. (NH4)2HPO4 d. Ni3P2
e. HI(aq) f. Li2O g. Br2O
72) For each of the molecular substances (a) CF3CHCl2 and (b) SO2Cl2, calculate its molecular mass and write a conversion factor that converts between mass in grams and moles of the substance.
74) A throat lozenge contains 5.0 mg of menthol, which has the formula C10H20O.
a. How many moles of menthol are in 5.0 mg of menthol?
b. What is the mass in grams of 1.56 moles of menthol?
79) For each of the following ionic substances (a) Co2O3 and (b) Fe2(C2O4)3,
calculate its formula mass and write a conversion factor that converts between
mass in grams and moles of the substance.
81) An antacid contains 200 mg of aluminum hydroxide and 200 mg of magnesium
hydroxide per capsule. a. How many moles of Al(OH)3 does each capsule contain? b. What is the mass in milligrams of 0.0457 mole of magnesium hydroxide?
85) Write a conversion factor that converts between moles of oxygen in phosphoric acid, H3PO4, and moles of H3PO4.
89) Magnesium phosphate is used as a dental polishing agent. How many moles of ions (cations and anions together) are in 1 mole of magnesium phosphate, Mg3(PO4)2?
91) A multivitamin tablet contains 0.479 g of CaHPO4 as a source of phosphorus.
The recommended daily value of phosphorus is 1.000 g of P. a. Write a conversion factor that relates moles of phosphorus to moles of
calcium hydrogen phosphate. b. Calculate the mass in grams of phosphorus in 0.479 g of CaHPO4. c. What percentage of the daily value of phosphorus comes from this tablet?
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