Project #36969 - stats 2

 

31

A technique used to help people deal with phobias is to have them counteract the feared objects used by using imagination to move themselves to a place of safety.  In an experimental test of this technique, patients sit in front of a screen and are instructed to relax.  They are then shown an image of the feared object, i.e. a picture of a spider.  The patients are instructed to signal the researcher as soon as feelings of anxiety reach a point at which viewing the image can no longer be tolerated.  The researcher records the amount of time in minutes that the patient was able to endure looking at the image.  The patient then spends two minutes imagining a “safe scene” such as a tropical beach or a familiar room before the feared object is presented again.  As before in the pre-test condition, the patient signals when the level of anxiety becomes intolerable.  Patients are expected to tolerate the feared object image longer after the imagination exercise, the post-test condition, which translates to a decrease in the phobia.  The data below summarizes the times recorded for participants.  Does the data indicate a significant increase in time viewing the feared object, and therefore a reduction in phobia using an alpha = .01, one-tailed.

Subject

Pretest

Post-test

(X1 - X2)

D

D2

1

16

19

-3

9

2

12

18

-6

36

3

13

12

1

1

4

18

15

3

9

5

15

14

1

1

6

12

14

-2

4

7

12

17

-5

25

 

ΣX1 = 98

ΣX2 = 109

ΣD = -11

ΣD2 = 85

 

M1 = 14.00

M2 = 15.57

(ΣD)2 = 121

 

 

 

 

MD = -1.57

 

 

 

 

SS = 67.71

 

 

What is the df value to determine the critical value for this study?

 

a.

7

 

b.

15

 

c.

6

 

d.

14

32

What is the tcritical value for this study?

 

a.

-2.977

 

b.

-3.499

 

c.

-3.143

 

d.

-2.947

33

A technique used to help people deal with phobias is to have them counteract the feared objects used by using imagination to move themselves to a place of safety.  In an experimental test of this technique, patients sit in front of a screen and are instructed to relax.  They are then shown an image of the feared object, i.e. a picture of a spider.  The patients are instructed to signal the researcher as soon as feelings of anxiety reach a point at which viewing the image can no longer be tolerated.  The researcher records the amount of time in minutes that the patient was able to endure looking at the image.  The patient then spends two minutes imagining a “safe scene” such as a tropical beach or a familiar room before the feared object is presented again.  As before in the pre-test condition, the patient signals when the level of anxiety becomes intolerable.  Patients are expected to tolerate the feared object image longer after the imagination exercise, the post-test condition, which translates to a decrease in the phobia.  The data below summarizes the times recorded for participants.  Does the data indicate a significant increase in time viewing the feared object, and therefore a reduction in phobia using an alpha = .01, one-tailed.

Subject

Pretest

Post-test

(X1 - X2)

D

D2

1

16

19

-3

9

2

12

18

-6

36

3

13

12

1

1

4

18

15

3

9

5

15

14

1

1

6

12

14

-2

4

7

12

17

-5

25

 

ΣX1 = 98

ΣX2 = 109

ΣD = -11

ΣD2 = 85

 

M1 = 14.00

M2 = 15.57

(ΣD)2 = 121

 

 

 

 

MD = -1.57

 

 

 

 

SS = 67.71

 

 

What variance value (s2) will you use for the standard error of mean differences (sMD) calculation?

 

a.

4.51

 

b.

9.67

 

c.

11.29

 

d.

4.84

34

A technique used to help people deal with phobias is to have them counteract the feared objects used by using imagination to move themselves to a place of safety.  In an experimental test of this technique, patients sit in front of a screen and are instructed to relax.  They are then shown an image of the feared object, i.e. a picture of a spider.  The patients are instructed to signal the researcher as soon as feelings of anxiety reach a point at which viewing the image can no longer be tolerated.  The researcher records the amount of time in minutes that the patient was able to endure looking at the image.  The patient then spends two minutes imagining a “safe scene” such as a tropical beach or a familiar room before the feared object is presented again.  As before in the pre-test condition, the patient signals when the level of anxiety becomes intolerable.  Patients are expected to tolerate the feared object image longer after the imagination exercise, the post-test condition, which translates to a decrease in the phobia.  The data below summarizes the times recorded for participants.  Does the data indicate a significant increase in time viewing the feared object, and therefore a reduction in phobia using an alpha = .01, one-tailed.

Subject

Pretest

Post-test

(X1 - X2)

D

D2

1

16

19

-3

9

2

12

18

-6

36

3

13

12

1

1

4

18

15

3

9

5

15

14

1

1

6

12

14

-2

4

7

12

17

-5

25

 

ΣX1 = 98

ΣX2 = 109

ΣD = -11

ΣD2 = 85

 

M1 = 14.00

M2 = 15.57

(ΣD)2 = 121

 

 

 

 

MD = -1.57

 

 

 

 

SS = 67.71

 

 

The standard error value (sMD) = ?

 

a.

1.27

 

b.

1.18

 

c.

0.83

 

d.

0.80

35

A technique used to help people deal with phobias is to have them counteract the feared objects used by using imagination to move themselves to a place of safety.  In an experimental test of this technique, patients sit in front of a screen and are instructed to relax.  They are then shown an image of the feared object, i.e. a picture of a spider.  The patients are instructed to signal the researcher as soon as feelings of anxiety reach a point at which viewing the image can no longer be tolerated.  The researcher records the amount of time in minutes that the patient was able to endure looking at the image.  The patient then spends two minutes imagining a “safe scene” such as a tropical beach or a familiar room before the feared object is presented again.  As before in the pre-test condition, the patient signals when the level of anxiety becomes intolerable.  Patients are expected to tolerate the feared object image longer after the imagination exercise, the post-test condition, which translates to a decrease in the phobia.  The data below summarizes the times recorded for participants.  Does the data indicate a significant increase in time viewing the feared object, and therefore a reduction in phobia using an alpha = .01, one-tailed.

Subject

Pretest

Post-test

(X1 - X2)

D

D2

1

16

19

-3

9

2

12

18

-6

36

3

13

12

1

1

4

18

15

3

9

5

15

14

1

1

6

12

14

-2

4

7

12

17

-5

25

 

ΣX1 = 98

ΣX2 = 109

ΣD = -11

ΣD2 = 85

 

M1 = 14.00

M2 = 15.57

(ΣD)2 = 121

 

 

 

 

MD = -1.57

 

 

 

 

SS = 67.71

 

 

The calculated t-value = ?

 

a.

-1.236

 

b.

-1.892

 

c.

-1.331

 

d.

-1.963

36

What is your Step 4 decision?

 

a.

Fail to Reject H0, t(6) = -1.236, p > .01

 

b.

Reject H0, t(14) = -1.892, p < .01

 

c.

Fail to Reject H0, t(7) = -1.331, p > .01

 

d.

Reject H0, t(15) = -1.963, p < .01

37

What type of hypothesis testing error might you have made?  Explain why.

38

Calculate the effect size for this hypothesis test, d =

Is the effect size Small, Medium, or Large?

39

Write out the results in plain English including an interpretation of effect size and the 95% confidence interval.

 

 

 

 

Subject Mathematics
Due By (Pacific Time) 08/01/2014 06:30 pm
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