Jim thinks that the five-factor model of psychosocial development provides the best and most accurate description of personality in the adult years. Which one of the following statements is Jim most likely to make about personality change?
A. Personality characteristics remain pretty much the same over most of adult life.
B. Adolescents and young adults experience five crises that produce instability in personality.
C. There are certain normative influences on adaptive mechanisms in mid-life.
D. Personality changes considerably during middle adulthood.
Professor Sally is a strong advocate of the typological approach to personality study. She is designing a research project and has begun assessing her subjects on a number of factors. Which one of the following measures is Professor Sally least likely to use in her research?
Your co-worker Julian states that he believes that everyone follows the same basic sequence of emotional and social changes. These changes, Julian says, are related to the person's age. Julian subscribes to which kind of personality development model?
Until recently, middle age has been the least studied part of the human life-span. The most likely explanation for this is that: uninteresting time of life, so not many people wanted to study it. energy and time to studying how to keep people young. adult life until fairly recently. separating the two life stages for separate study.
A. middle age has always been the most sedentary and
B. our obsession with youth has led researchers to devote more
C. people did not think of middle age as a distinct stage of
D. middle age is so much like old age that there is little point in
Larry is typical of most middle-aged adults in the United States. Larry, therefore, probably is: good about his life. good about the quality of his life because he expected these declines. unhappy with the quality of his life. raising children, and caring for aging parents.
A. in good physical, mental, and emotional shape, and feels
B. in rapid physical, mental, and emotional decline, but feels
C. in a very busy and stressful time of life and generally is
D. often overwhelmed by the stresses of balancing work,
According to research on the process of menopause in Japanese and American women, which one of the following dietary changes is most likely to help American women to reduce the severity of menopausal symptoms?
A. Increase tea consumption since it contains tannic acid.
B. Increase alcohol consumption slightly because it helps reduce stress.
C. Increase rice consumption because rice contains carbohydrates.
D. Increase consumption of tofu because soybeans contain phytoestrogens.
Marsha, a nurse, is feeling emotionally exhausted by her work. She feels like she is accomplishing nothing on the job. Marsha often feels a sense of helplessness and a loss of control in her work. Most likely, Marsha is suffering from:
Princeton mathematician Dr. John Nash is able to look at numbers and identify mathematical patterns that most of us would not see. According to Cattell and Horn, Dr. Nash is probably above average in which type of intelligence?
According to creativity research, if Mozart, who died at age 35, had lived into old age, he would probably have produced: have been as high as it was in young adulthood. "swan songs." been even better than it was in young adulthood. musical works he produced in young adulthood.
A. fewer musical works, and the quality of his work would not
B. increasingly complex musical compositions and a number of
C. fewer musical works, but the quality of his work would have
D. almost nothing that matched the quality or quantity of
Fifty-two-year-old Bea has signed up for a class at her local community college. If she is like most mature learners, Bea is taking the class for job-related reasons. In comparison with her younger classmates, Bea is most likely to:
Educational institutions are often built around the way that young people learn, yet shifting job markets and technological advances have made it necessary for increasing numbers of middle-aged workers to return to the classroom. Therefore, mature learners might benefit most from which one of the following changes?
A. More competitive grading systems
B. More emphasis on cooperative study built around self-generated problems and projects
C. Increased emphasis on memorization
D. More factual information presented in classroom lectures
Question 1 of 20
Forty-five-year-old Guy is in his midlife transition. According to Carl Jung, Guy should be in the process of accomplishing which two difficult tasks? eventual death his family assertively
A. Giving up his image of youth and acknowledging his
B. Becoming more extroverted and getting more involved with
C. Decreasing in generativity and decreasing in stagnation
D. Becoming more achievement-oriented and behaving more
Forty-four-year-old Aileen owns a successful business. Recently, Aileen has taken on a high school student as an intern in order to "show her the ropes" of running a business. According to Erik Erikson, Aileen is demonstrating:
Katie and Josh claim that their marriage is suffering from "U-Shaped Curve Syndrome." As a student of developmental psychology, you know that Katie and Josh are making an attempt at humor but are probably experiencing:
A. an unhappy marriage. Their marriage was much less happy in their younger years together, but they know that it's probably all downhill from here.
B. marital dissatisfaction in their early married life. They probably realize that things will get better in middle age, then decline again in old age.
C. marital dissatisfaction. They've been married a long time, were happy early in their married life, and realize that they will be happy again in the future.
D. a temporary period when one of them is happy and the other is not. They are dealing with the situation with humor, so they will probably get back in sync eventually.
Chloris and Lars have been married for 25 years. They have built up their financial resources, and their emotional bond has grown over the years. Research suggests that Chloris and Lars have considerable: to break up. couples married fewer years. because of the mutual support. because they probably have enough money for both to live independently.
A. marital mutuality, but they are as likely as any other couple
B. marital capital, so they are less likely to break up than are
C. marital scaffolding, so they are less likely to break up
D. marital harmony, but they are more likely to break up
Martha, who is on several different medications for various chronic ailments, seems much older than her 73 years. She has been overweight all her life and has been a smoker since age 17. Before retiring at age 63, Martha worked a desk job for 40 years. Since she hates exercise regimens, Martha has never gotten enough exercise. Martha's current physical condition is due to:
You are taking a course in demographics and have been asked to look at a large number of case histories of people who have died in the past 20 years. All of your case histories involve men and women who lived into older adulthood. After reading about older adults, you already know that you can expect to find out that, in the later years of their lives, the men are more likely than the women to have:
A coworker, Imelda, says that she takes care of her body and can extend her life by eating lots of vegetables that are high in beta-carotene. Apparently, Imelda would agree with the theory that biological aging is caused by:
Egbert, a healthy 83-year-old man, has noticed that he can no longer lift heavy things like suitcases as easily as he once did. Egbert and his wife, Ruby, have finally saved up enough money to fulfill their life's dream, a world tour. Since he's lost some strength in his arms, however, Egbert knows there will be times when moving their luggage around will be a problem for him. Ruby suffers from tennis elbow, so she cannot lift heavy objects. Egbert decides that he'll "train" for their long-awaited trip by lifting weights for six months prior to departure. Will his weight-training help?
A. No. In old age, loss of muscle mass is not reversible.
B. His weight training will help if he also takes hormone replacement therapy.
C. Probably not. He is too old to overcome atrophy.
D. Probably. Loss in muscle strength may be reversible.
Dorothea, age 72, has a hard time getting out of her favorite recliner. When she first gets out of her seat, she appears to be in a bit of pain until she walks around for a couple of minutes. Dorothea may be suffering from: older adults. old age. among older adults. receptor cells in the brain.
A. arthritis, the most common chronic health problem among
B. shrinkage of the spinal column due to loss of bone mass in
C. chondroitin sulfate deficiency, a common chronic problem
D. a balance problem, which indicates reduced sensitivity of
Edna, age 70, repeatedly asks her husband where her pocketbook is, even though it has always been kept on the hall table. Yesterday, she put her wedding rings in the cat litter and was very upset when she couldn't find them. A couple of months ago, she went to the corner to mail a letter and got lost returning home. A neighbor found her wandering in the next block. The most likely explanation for Edna's behavior is that she has:
You have just started a new job as a pharmacist's assistant. You are trying to learn something about the various drugs and the conditions for which they are prescribed. Mr. Holtz has just handed you his new prescription for sertraline. You know Mr. Holtz from the neighborhood. He recently lost his wife of 50 years. You also know that sertraline is an SRRI, a drug that restores balance in brain chemicals. Although you can't know for sure, you have enough information to deduce that Mr. Holtz is taking this drug for:
Eighty-five-year-old Vera is recovering very well from a broken hip. She is able to walk with the aid of a cane and live independently. Vera's son is visiting her and has just watched his mother provide him with a good example of "selective optimization with compensation." What did Vera do?
A. Vera whacked the dog with her cane because he ate her favorite plant.
B. Vera just completed the entire New York Times crossword puzzle herself with the aid of her crossword dictionary.
C. Rather than climbing on her stepstool, Vera used her cane to reach a pillow on the closet shelf and pull it down.
D. Because her son loves chocolate chip cookies, Vera gave him the box of cookies that her neighbor baked for her.
You have just read in the newspaper about a research study that looked at the fate of intelligence over the life span. The newspaper article did not give many details, but it did say that the researchers concluded that there is a huge decline in intelligence over the life span, especially in old age. This is distressing news, but you're not worried because based upon what you have learned in this course, you strongly suspect that the study was
John is 92 years old. He reads the newspaper cover-to-cover every day and can analyze and discuss what he reads every bit as well as his 35-year-old grandson. He grocery shops with his wife, and by the time they reach the check-out, John already knows how much the bill will be before tax is added. John keeps a mental running tab as his wife adds items to the cart. John's behavior lends support to the:
You are asked to name the 16th President of the United States. Assume that you know the correct answer. Which type of memory did you use to find your answer? Will you still know the answer when you're 80?
Gladys, age 74, is asked for the name of her dentist but cannot seem to remember it. Later, when looking through the phonebook, she sees her dentist's name and knows that this is the name she was trying to remember earlier. This indicates that Jody's __________ ability is more effective than her __________ ability.
Eugene says, "I have a little trouble with remembering now, so I learn people's names by making up funny rhymes about them in my head. I remember phone numbers that I look up by reciting them over and over until I dial the phone." Eugene's statements reflect his knowledge of:
Siobhan is going to teach her students to build a widget. Her students will be members of a senior citizens group. Which one of the following formats would probably be best for Siobhan's elderly students?
A. Teach the students using a user-friendly video demonstration.
B. Use a fast-paced lecture to hold their attention.
C. Give the students a manual and tell them to read it on their own.
D. To avoid ageism, put the seniors in with the younger students and teach both groups the same way.