Project #38377 - personality psychology

Assignment 5

In Freudian theory, the type of thinking attributed to the id is called __________ thinking.

A. pleasure focused

 B. narcissistic

 C. infantile

 D. primary process

According to Freudian theory, the function of defense mechanisms is to:

A. keep the individual from having to face harsh reality.

B. prevent the superego from gaining dominance over the ego.

C. lessen anxiety by working towards a balance between id and superego.

D. reduce the amount of energy one has to expend in forging the reality principle.

In Freudian theory, the ego must try to match the wishes of the id with objects and events in the real world through a process of:

A. moderation.

B. mature consideration.

C. identification.

D. wish fulfillment.

The topographic model of personality contains all of the following concepts EXCEPT:

a. conscious.

B. postconscious.

C. preconscious.

D. unconscious.

According to __________ theory, we form emotional bonds with our early caregivers which become mental representations or internal working models of all future intimate relationships.

 

A. psychoanalytic

B. attachment

C. Horney’s

D. transference

Ainsworth and her colleagues identified three patterns of attachment including all of the following EXCEPT:

A. avoidant.

B. borderline.

C. secure.

D. anxious-ambivalent.

 

Recent studies have found approximately __________% agreement between an infant’s secure or insecure attachment in the Strange Situation and his or her attachment in later adolescence and young adulthood.

A. 20

B. 40

C. 70

D. 85 Based on Freudian theory, each of the following is a possible personality type resulting in a problem at a psychosexual stage EXCEPT:

 

A. oral incorporative personality.

 

b. anal sadistic personality.

 C. phallic character.

 D. hysterical character

all of the following are neo-Freudians EXCEPT:

A. Alfred Adler.

B. Elizabeth Loftus.

C. Karen Horney.

D. Harry Stack Sullivan

On waking, many people are able to describe what they experience in their dreams. Freud’s term for this information was __________ content.

A. manifest

B. obvious

C. latent

D. surface

In the topographic model, thoughts that are just outside our awareness but are easily accessible are contained in the:

A. unconscious.

B. motivated conscious.

C. preconscious.

D. anticonscious.

Free association works in leading a patient to reveal unconscious thoughts in theory because:

A. a patient comes to trust the therapist over time.

B. when a patient relaxes, so does their mental censor or monitor.

C. it is a form of hypnosis in which the patient comes to obey the therapist.

D. free association is for getting at conscious thoughts, not unconscious ones.

Freud reasoned that just as the body used energy to carry out its functions, the mind must similarly use an energy, which he called __________ energy.

a. cathartic

 B. mental

 C. psychic    D. sexual

The real work in dream analysis was in the interpretation of dream symbolism and reactions to the dream that brought out the true meaning of the dream, or its:

 

 

 

 

A. psychodynamic content.

 

 

B. freed meaning.

 

 

C. unconscious meaning.

 

 

D. latent content.

You are looking for a mature, logical manager for a company, who can weigh the costs and rewards of possible actions soberly. You have hired a psychoanalyst trained in the use of projective tests to find someone strong in:

A. primary process thinking.

B. secondary process thinking.

C. identification.

D. pleasure principle thinking.

The term for Freud’s talk therapy is:

 

a. transference.

 B. dream analysis.

 C. unconscious modification.

 D. psychoanalysis.

Bowlby theorized that the attachment system __________ to keep infants close to their mothers and safe from harm.

A. devolved

B. evolved

C. is learned

D. is a social adaptation

 

Freud’s structural model of personality contained all of the following EXCEPT:

a. superego.

 B. id.

 C. underego.

 D. ego.

 

In Ainsworth’s experiments into the nature of attachment, what preceded the Strange Situation?

A. Six months of weekly questionnaires filled out by the mother

B. Two sets of tests, one for the mother, and another for the infant

C. An hour of separation between mother and infant

D. A year of observations of mother-infant interactions

 

In a six month study of elders living in Philadelphia:

 

a. those with an optimistic explanatory style showed fewer symptoms of depression.

 B. those with a pessimistic explanatory style showed fewer symptoms of depression if a negative event occurred in the six month period.

 

 

C. those with an optimistic explanatory style showed fewer symptoms of depression if a negative event occurred in the six month period.

 

 

D. optimists and pessimists displayed an equal number of symptoms of depression if a negative event occurred in the six month period

Giving up on goals, distancing, denying, abusing substance, etc., is known as __________ coping.

 

a. problematic

 B. neurotic

 C. emotion-focused

 D. avoidant

The textbook lists several characteristics of an optimistic explanatory style. All of the following are mentioned as assumptions about negative events EXCEPT they are:

A. unlikely to happen again.

B. not the individual’s fault.

C. the result of fate, not personal actions.

 

D. limited to just one aspect of one’s life

 

A successful program for teaching children to think more optimistically was based on the ABC model of Albert Ellis. A stands for adversity, B stands for belief, C stands for consequences, but the program for children added a D that stands for:

 

 

 

 

A. disengage from pessimism.

 

 

B. drop the negative thinking.

 

 

C. discharge the negative energy.

 

 

D. dispute the negative thoughts.

 

Reset Selection

 

Hiroto’s research with humans suggests that all of the following can influence learned helplessness EXCEPT:

 

 

 

 

A. their cultural beliefs about fate, Karma, or destiny.

 

 

B. their beliefs about control.

 

 

C. their expectations about a specific task.

 

 

D. past experiences with uncontrollable outcomes

 

Locus of control leads to differences in how individuals interact with others. All of the following have been found EXCEPT:

A. internals hold more campus positions of leadership.

 B. externals are less likely to opt for positions of power.

 C. internals are more sensitive to the social demands of a situation.

 D. externals hold fewer positions of leadership on campus

People who are defined as field-independent tend to:

A. have trouble cooperating in games.

B. rely on their own physical sensations.

C. see the big picture rather than details.

D. be easily distracted by surrounding details

Rotter found evidence that __________ are more likely to believe in fate, astrology, and chance events.

A. neurotics

B. internals

C. externals

D. narcissists

 

When compared to optimists, pessimists used more:

A. problem-focused coping.

B. revising of goals.

C. emotion-focused coping.

D. action-based problem solving

 

When compared to optimists, pessimists used more:

 

 

 

 

A. problem-focused coping.

 

 

B. revising of goals.

 

 

C. emotion-focused coping.

 

 

D. action-based problem solving.

 

One of the most consistent findings in the literature is that a pessimistic explanatory style is a risk factor for:

 

 

 

 

A. depression.

 

 

B. social phobia.

 

 

C. schizophrenia.

 

 

D. Munchhausen’s Syndrome.

The general expectation that good things will happen in the future is labeled as:

A. dispositional optimism.

 

 

B. genetic optimism.

 

 

C. the Pollyanna Syndrome.

 

D. positively biased expectations.

In a study looking at the forces that cause differences in explanatory style, which type of family developed the greatest tendency to view events pessimistically?

 

 

 

 

A. Families emphasizing submissiveness

 

 

B. Families emphasizing independence

 

 

C. Families that modeled pessimism

 

 

D. Families that predominantly used punishment for discipline

 

The term coined by Overmier and Seligman to describe the experience of dogs or humans exposed to an aversive situation over which they had no control was:

 

 

 

 

A. depression.

 

 

B. amotivational.

 

 

C. anxious.

 

 

D. learned helplessness.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

It is clearly unethical to experimentally put people into traumatic situations. Even temporarily telling a group of subjects that their families had been killed, even though they had not, would be highly unethical and would never be approved by a research committee. However, social scientists can study groups of people who have had traumatic events happen even though the researchers now have less control over the situation. This type of research is described as:

 

 

 

 

A. correlational.

 

 

B. experimental.

 

 

C. quasi-experimental.

 

 

D. observational.

All of the following have been found about individuals who score high on tests of internal locus of control EXCEPT:

A. their scores on tests of internal locus of control at age 10 correlate positively with educational attainment in adulthood.

 

 

B. they are better at planning and working towards long-term goals.

 

 

C. they are more likely to support the death penalty.

 

 

D. they are less able to delay gratification due to their enthusiasm

In a study looking at the forces that cause differences in explanatory style, which type of family developed the greatest tendency to view events pessimistically?

 

 

 

 

A. Families emphasizing submissiveness

 

 

B. Families emphasizing independence

 

 

C. Families that modeled pessimism

 

 

D. Families that predominantly used punishment for discipline

The term coined by Overmier and Seligman to describe the experience of dogs or humans exposed to an aversive situation over which they had no control was:

 

 

 

 

A. depression.

 

 

B. amotivational.

 

 

C. anxious.

 

 

D. learned helplessness.

It is clearly unethical to experimentally put people into traumatic situations. Even temporarily telling a group of subjects that their families had been killed, even though they had not, would be highly unethical and would never be approved by a research committee. However, social scientists can study groups of people who have had traumatic events happen even though the researchers now have less control over the situation. This type of research is described as:

 

 

 

 

A. correlational.

 

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