Project #38424 - Physcology

lesson 7

The meta-analytic data presented in the textbook suggests that men have higher rates of all of the following mental disorders EXCEPT:


A. substance abuse.


B. bipolar disorder.


C. gender identity disorder.


D. autism.



According to the __________ theory of Deci and Ryan, there is a big difference between engaging in an activity because of extrinsic reasons and engaging in the same activity for intrinsic reasons.


A. psychodynamic


B. self-determination


C. psych-motivation


D. Tae Bo



The majority of American culture tends to believe firmly in significant differences between men and women. The contrasting ways of approaching the social world that is part of this cultural belief is known as __________ and agency.


A. association


B. communion


C. relationships


D. nurturance



According to the textbook, which of the following is correct?


A. Men are better than women at mental rotation, and when both practice, this ability gap increases.


B. Women are better than men at mental rotation, and when both practice, this ability gap increases.


C. Men are better than women at mental rotation, and when both practice, this ability gap disappears.


D. Women are better than men at mental rotation, and when both practice, this ability gap disappears.



The textbook states that an important part of satisfying the need for competence is working on tasks that are:


A. easy.


B. very difficult.


C. optimally challenging.


D. maximally challenging.



Personality theorists refer to the connection between choice and behavior as locus of:


A. causality.


B. choice.


C. determination.


D. power.



The textbook summarizes areas in which there are significant differences between males and females based on meta-analytic studies. The authors suggest that all of the following are areas in which evidence suggesting a significant gender difference has NOT been found EXCEPT:


A. neuroticism: impulsiveness.


B. conscientiousness: order.


C. verbal ability.


D. occupational preferences.



According to Csikszentmihalyi, engagement in tasks that have a clear set of goals, require appropriate responses, give immediate feedback, and in which people are operating at their maximum capacity can lead to a positive state called:


A. ecstasy.


B. flow.


C. self actualization.


D. grove.



With regard to gender differences between men and women on measures of aggression, all of the following are correct EXCEPT:


A. one of the most consistent findings, both within the United States and other countries, is that men are more aggressive than women.


B. men are consistently more physically aggressive than women.


C. women are more verbally aggressive than men.


D. if women or men have been directly threatened, there is no difference in aggression between men and women.



Meta-analytic research into self-esteem suggests that: Project Milestone


A. men and women show no differences in self-esteem.


B. women have slightly higher self-esteem than men.


C. men have slightly higher self-esteem than women.


D. men and women vary dramatically across age ranges with regard to self-esteem.



Strategies that help individuals develop and express their own self are autonomy supportive; the opposite of autonomy support is:


A. punishment.


B. unsupportive.


C. criticism.


D. control.



If our needs are not met in a context that fails to provide either involvement, structure, or autonomy support, we will not feel motivated. Instead of engaging in the activities of the enterprise we may feel:


A. depressed.


B. disaffection.


C. angst.


D. controlled.



With regard to differences in empathy between the sexes, all of the following are accurate EXCEPT:


A. women score higher on measures of tenderness than men.


B. women behave more empathically than men.


C. women score higher on measures of empathy than men.


D. women are more accurate at judging the emotions of others than men.


Self-determination theory is grounded in the __________ tradition which emphasizes responsibility, growth, and the actualizing tendency.


A. humanistic


B. transpersonal


C. trait


D. psychodynamic



The meta-analytic data presented in the textbook suggests that women have higher rates of all the following mental disorders EXCEPT:


A. antisocial personality disorder.


B. depression.


C. borderline personality disorder.


D. panic disorder.



The textbook suggests that being __________ means adjusting our own behavior and attitudes somewhere along the continuum of motivation depending on the situation and activity.


A. self-regulated


B. self-mastered


C. independent


D. self-actualized



The textbook summarizes evidence indicating trivial effects sizes for gender differences in all of the following risk-taking areas EXCEPT:


A. smoking.


B. sexual activities.


C. drug use.


D. intellectual risk taking.



One area in which adolescent girls are consistently more aggressive than adolescent boys is in the use of:


A. rejection or exclusion to hurt others psychologically.


B. physical aggression in response to a threat to a relationship.


C. subtle threats of physical violence by a second party.


D. aggression in general.



The only factor included in the Five-Factor Model to show a large d or effect size is:


A. extroversion: assertiveness.


B. openness: ideas.


C. Nneuroticism: impulsiveness.


D. psychoticism: depression



By definition, people with a(an) __________ orientation approach situations through amotivation, detachment, and apathy. They believe there is little they can do to attain a desired outcome.


A. apathetic


B. impersonal


C. controlled


D. disoriented



Recent research has suggested that all of the following roles are played by positive emotions EXCEPT they:


A. increase flexibility in thinking and problem solving.


B. help undo physiological effects caused by negative emotions.


C. increase activity in the regions of the brain that are used to attract social aid.


D. trigger an upward spiral of increased well being.



In reviewing the literature on positive emotions, the author of the textbook concludes that:


A. well being was not related so much to level of positive emotions as to the level of broad-mindedness.


B. the amount of distress an individual experienced was related to how broad-minded their coping style was.


C. subjects who relied on broad-minded coping experienced fewer negative emotions.


D. positive emotions led to a broader way of thinking, which in turn led to a broader way of coping



The term ego-resilience used to refer to the ability to modify one’s response to meet the requirements of a stressful situation and to return to one’s characteristic level of self-regulation after a stressor. Researchers today refer to this concept as:


A. ego strength.


B. trait strength.


C. trait resilience.


D. self-strength.



The textbook lists all of the following as problems with the concept of hardiness EXCEPT:


A. it could be that the three components of hardiness –control, commitment, and challenge – could be separate components rather than aspects of a single personality type.


B. it could be that hardiness is not a unique concept, but that it overlaps with other concepts such as dispositional optimism.


C. hardiness could be a simple self-fulfilling prophecy. If an individual believes she or he will get sick less, then that may come to pass.


D. it looks like hardiness is related to lower levels of illness and distress, but we don’t know why. It could be due to a bias in how people fill out self-report questionnaires.



Maddi and his colleagues have observed that people high in hardiness turn potentially stressful situations into something less threatening and ultimately even growth enhancing with what they term __________ coping.


A. self-actualizing


B. enlightened


C. transformational


D. mindful



In theorizing about the nature of hardiness, early research suggested that executives who stayed healthy in the face of stress were higher in the three C’s. All of the following are among the "three C’s" EXCEPT:


A. control.


B. caring.


C. commitment.


D. challenge.



The textbook suggests that having meaning in one’s life is associated with all of the following EXCEPT:


A. increased immune system functioning.


B. feelings of flow.


C. increased levels of positive emotion.


D. increased intelligence.



One of the essential features of positive emotions is that they function as:


A. mental aides.


B. rewards.


C. neuromodulators.


D. aphrodisiacs.



The theory that suggests that positive emotions, such as joy, interest, contentment, and love, expand people’s awareness, thoughts, and actions is known as the __________ and-build theory.


A. increase


B. facilitate


C. consolidate


D. broaden



Summarizing the research on hardy or resilient personality types, the textbook concludes that:


A. hardiness and resilience are likely one trait.


B. there is likely one common set of behaviors that lead to resilience.


C. rather than one hardy or resilient personality type, there may be many pathways to resilience.


D. the validity of the concept of reliance has not been established.



According to __________ models, some people, like those higher in consciousness or with an internal locus of control, adopt a healthier lifestyle and take better care of themselves such as eating a healthy diet, exercising, and not smoking.


A. transactional stress moderation


B. constitutional predisposition


C. interactional stress moderation


D. health behavior



In comparing positive with negative emotions, all of the following have been discovered EXCEPT negative emotions:


A. are associated with only one brain region while several regions can trigger positive emotions.


B. involve more physiological arousal than positive ones.


C. outnumber positive ones.


D. have unique facial expressions associated with them whereas many positive emotions use some variation on the Duchenne smile.



The textbook lists seven habits of highly resilient people which include all of the following EXCEPT:


A. a strong religious conviction.


B. a meaningful life.


C. gratitude.


D. loving relationships with family and friends.



The textbook suggests that each of the following is involved in helping hardy people rebound from difficulty or stress, EXCEPT:


A. hardy people use their pessimism to motivate changes in their situation.


B. hardy people can alter their perceptions of a situation.


C. hardy people are used to active problem solving.


D. hardy people are generally more engaged with people.



The textbook lists four potential responses to trauma and includes all of the following EXCEPT:


A. thriving.


B. resilience.


C. post traumatic stress.


D. survival with impairment.



Summarizing several research studies that looked at what allows resilient people to recover faster from stressful situations, the textbook suggests that the key component may well be their ability to regulate:


A. negative emotions.


B. positive emotions.


C. negative perceptions.


D. anxiety.



Further research into the observation that positive emotions broaden one’s way of thinking and negative emotions reduce the desire to act and cause a narrowing of attention and thought have been linked to the corresponding levels of the neurotransmitter:


A. dopamine.


B. actine.


C. serotonin.





The textbook lists four models that have been proposed to explain how personality impacts health. All of the following are included in that list EXCEPT:


A. health behavior.


B. psychodynamic development.


C. transactional stress moderation.


D. constitutional predisposition.


A research group is looking at the effects of optimism vs. pessimism on the number of killer T-cells in an individual’s immune system. Likely, they are working on the __________ model of the impact of personality on health.


A. constitutional predisposition


B. interactional stress


C. personal immune


D. health behavior



The textbook suggests that there is a remarkable overlap between all of the following concepts EXCEPT:


A. hardiness.


B. stamina.


C. trait resilience.


D. positive emotions.





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Due By (Pacific Time) 08/24/2014 09:00 pm
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