Project #38625 - Philosophy

 

PHL1090

 

Exercise 1.1

 

 

 

Name:  ___________________________

 

 

 

A.   Formalize the following arguments. (See the powerpoint lecture.) The example and the arguments are all from Hurley’s exercise 1.1.  I’ve included the citation.   (5 points possible.)

 

 

 

Example:  “Profit serves a very crucial function in a free enterprise economy, such as our own.  High profits are the signal that consumers want more of the output of the industry.  High profits provide the incentive for firms to expand output and for more firms to enter the industry in the long run.  For a firm of above-average efficiency, profits represent the reward for greater efficiency.”  (Dominc Salvatore, Managerial Economics, 3rd ed.)

 

 

 

P1:  High profits are the signal that consumers want more of the output of the industry.

 

P2:  High profits provide the incentive for firms to expand output.

 

P3:  High profits provide the incentive for more firms to enter the industry in the long run. 

 

P4:  For a firm of above-average efficiency, profits represent the reward for greater efficiency.

 

C:  Profit serves a very crucial function in a free enterprise economy.

 

 

 

Now you try it.  


 

 

 

 

1)     To every existing thing God wills some good.  Hence, since to love anything is nothing else than to will the good to that thing, it is manifest that God loves everything that exists.  (Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica)

 

 


 

 

 

 

2)    An ant releases a chemical when it dies, and its fellows then carry it away to the compost heap.  Apparently the communication is highly effective; a healthy ant painted with the death chemical will be dragged to the funeral heap again and again.  (Carol R. Ember and Melvin Ember, Cultural Anthropology, 7th ed.)

 

 


 

 

 

 

3)    The fact that there was never a land bridge between Australia and mainland Asia is evidenced by the fact that the animal species in the two areas are very different.  Asian placental mammals and Australian marsupial mammals have not been in contact in the last several million years.  (T. Douglas Price and Gary M. Feiniman, Images of the Past)

 

 


 

 

 

 

4)    Though it is possible that REM sleep and dreaming are not necessary in the adult, REM deprivation studies seem to suggest otherwise.  Why would REM pressure increase with deprivation if the system is unimportant in the adult?  (Herbert L. Petri, Motivation: Theory and Research, 2nd ed.)

 

 


 

 

 

 

5)    Many people believe that a dark tan is attractive and a sign of good health, but mounting evidence indicates that too much sun can lead to health problems.  One of the most noticeable effects is premature aging of the skin.  The sun also contributes to certain kinds of cataracts, and, what is most worrisome, it plays a role in skin cancer.

 

 


 

 

 

 

B.   Remember that for an argument to exist all sentences must have a truth value. Tell me which of the following constitute arguments, and why you think so.  These are my own creation, so no citations.  (5 points possible.)

 

 

 

Example:  Chocolate ice cream tastes better than vanilla.  So we should order chocolate ice cream for the church picnic.  There is no truth value to “chocolate ice cream tastes better than vanilla,” since it is a matter of opinion.  An argument has to have premises that are either true or false, so this is not an argument.

 

       Now you try it.

 

 


 

 

 

 

1)     It’s only 60 degrees in here, so we should close the window before we sit down to dinner. 

 

 


 

 

 

 

2)    I love my cat, and one ought to take care of an animal one loves.  So I ought to take good care of my cat.

 

 


 

 

 

 

3)   Aunt Maggie makes great tasting pie.  Since she knows the judges at the county fair are looking for great tasting pies, Aunt Maggie will certainly enter one of hers.

 

 


 

 

 

 

4)    Anyone who takes a life deserves to die.  Since capital punishment involves the taking of a life, killers should be killed, and so should executioners.

 

 


 

 

 

 

5)     Frisbees are so light, even a young child can toss one easily. 

 

 


 

 

Subject Philosophy
Due By (Pacific Time) 08/27/2014 08:00 pm
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