Project #42339 - chaper 1 through 4

Chapter One:

1)     (1/2) Elaborate mental functions consist of subfunctions and are constructed from both ____________and_____________ interconnections of several brain regions.

 

2)     (1/2) The somatic nervous system controls interactions with the ______________ environment, while the ANS controls the _____________ environment.

 

 

3)     (3/4) The CNS differentiates embryologically into subdivisions; Identify:

 

A)     Two cerebral hemispheres (plus corpus striatum)make up the ______________

B)     The thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus make up the ______________

C)     List the three other encephalons:

 

 

 

4)     (1/2) The __________ventricle is at the level of the pons and medulla

 

5)     (1/2) Which ventricles have been observed to be ‘enlarged’ in a number of psychiatric disorders (such as schizophrenia)?  Note that enlarged ventricles indicates ‘shrinkage’ in surrounding brain tissue.

 

 

Chapter two

1)     (1/2) Define the cerebrum:

 

 

2)     (1/2) Four ‘hillocks’ of the midbrain are called the __________ _______________ or ________________

 

3)     (1/2) What structures attach the cerebellum to the brain stem (i.e. to the pons and medulla)?

 

4)     (1/2) List ‘traditional’ functions of the cerebellum:

 

 

 

5)     (1/2) Decreased cerebellar size has been reported in a common disorder of childhood.  This disorder is:

 

6)     (1/2) “Cognitive dysmetria” in schizophrenia may be due to which brain abnormalities?

 

 

7)     (1/4) What is the ventricular cavity found in the diencephalon?

 

8)     (1/2) The lateral fissure separates the ________________cortical lobe from the _____________cortical lobe

 

 

 

9)     Describe the internal capsule

 

 

 

Chapter three:

1) Draw the neuron from Figure 3.2 and identify A) axons, B) cell body, C) dendrites and D) myelin:

 

 

 

 

 

2) (1/4) Draw an arrow  in the above picture, indicating the direction of the neuron’s “impulse” (i.e., the direction that information is transmitted)

 

Chapter 14

1)     (1/2) True or False (circle one): No other mammal possesses the degree of localization of function seen in humans

 

2)     The right hemisphere is hypothesized to be specialized in emotional and visuospatial (or, visualspatial) functions that are important in: ______________________________________

 

3)     (1/2) True or False (circle one): Corticocortical pathways are found both between, and within, hemispheres in the human brain

 

4)     (two-part question) Define a symmetrical heterotopic connection. 

 

 

 

These are typically found in _________________regions of the cortex.

 

 

 

5)     (3/4) Describe the three categories of tasks served by the corpus callosum:

A)

 

B)

 

C)

 

 

6)     (1/2) Visual signals reach both sides of the cortex by way of fibers that cross in the ___________________________

 

7)     (1/2) In the clinical vignette of a 38-year old right handed woman with “personality change”, it was determined that she suffered from interhemispheric disconnection syndrome.  What was the cause?

 

 

 

8)     (two-part question) What is alien hand sign and identify the corpus colossal region that is damaged when this clinical syndrome is seen.

 

 

 

 

9)     List a hypothesis that can account for the larger anterior commissure seen in females:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10)  (1/2 ea=3) Identify the hemisphere associated with each ability, process or skill, by entering a L for left or a R for right (each letter will have a L or a R):

 

A)     ___Linguistic abilities

B)     ___Face recognition

C)     ___Visuospatial tasks

D)    ___Tool use

E)     ___Attention in extra personal space

F)     ___Experiencing and expressing emotions

 

11)  (1/2)  From the clinical vignette, what is topographagnosia?

 

 

 

 

12)  (1/2ea=3 ½) Give definitions for the following:

 

A)    Color agnosia

 

 

B)     Prosopanosia

 

 

C)     Construction apraxia

 

 

D)    Receptive aphasia

 

 

E)     Aprosodia

 

 

F)     Hemiakinesia

 

 

G)    Expressive aphasia

 

 

 

Chapter four – Occipital and parietal lobes

1)     (1/4) What portion of the thalamus projects to VI? ______________

 

2)     (1/4) VI  is the primary visual cortex and is found in the _______________lobe

 

3)     Two cortical lobes are involved in visual processing.  List them:

 

 

 

4)     (3/4) In the occipital cortex, BA19 integrates three types of incoming sensory information.  List the three types:

 

 

 

5)     Each of two visual pathways bring in information on features of stimuli in the environment; List the features per pathway:

 

A)     Magnocellular pathway=______________________and____________________

 

B)     Parvocellular pathway=_____________________and____________________

 

 

 

6)     (2 points) Describe the dorsal and ventral ‘streams’ of incoming visual information in ONE sentence for each stream:

 

 

 

 

 

7)     (1/4) The ____________”body area” is sensitive to detecting images of bodies or body parts that are NOT one’s own.

 

8)     (1/4) Where is the fusiform face area?

 

9)     (1/2) Define visual agnosia (information in a clinical vignette)

 

10)  Decreased thickness of VI in schizophrenia is speculated to cause the following deficit:

 

 

 

11)  What are illusions and distortions?

 

 

 

12)  (1/2) A “confusional state” is seen with lesions of the ________________, and may be misdiagnosed as a psychiatric illness.

 

13)  (1/2) Perception of visual stimuli occurs in the _______________processing region of the occipital lobe

 

14)  (1/2) Loss of this area (identified in question 13 above) induces a disorder known as:

 

 

 

15)  (1/2) When subjects with snake phobia view snake images, blood flow increases in the secondary visual cortex, but decreases in the _____________________________

 

16)  Emotions can direct attention to stimuli in the environment. This is an example of __________________-______________control; (in this case, the limbic systems takes control over the visual receiving and processing areas)

 

17)  (3/4) The parietal lobe is integral to the perception of: _______________, _________________ and____________________.

 

18)  (1/2) The anterior parietal lobe receives ____________________sensations from the body

 

 

 

19)  The posterior parietal lobe integrates incoming signals from the following stimuli:

 

A)___________________________

B)__________________________

C)_________________________ and

D)_________________________

 

20)  (2 points) What is the difference between an egocentric map and an allocentric map (used by the parietal lobe in negotiating thru space)?

 

 

 

 

 

21)  (1/2) Which is more ‘automatic’ – top-down or bottom-up processing in the brain?  (Circle one)

 

22)  (1/2) The primary sensory cortex occupies the postcentral gyrus; this area receives input/projections from the VPM and the VPL of the __________________

 

23)  (1/2) One region of the parietal lobe is activated during attentional switching.  Identify this region:

 

24)  Brodman areas 5 and 7, on the lateral aspect of the parietal lobe, interact with brain areas that are part of the limbic system and brain areas that are part of the basal ganglia.  Thru these connections, the parietal lobe interacts with brain systems that control __________________ and _________________functions.

 

25)  Describe a dysphasic patient after a Superior Parietal Lobule lesion to the left hemisphere:

 

 

 

 

26)  Give an example of ideomotor apraxia (from the clinical vignette)

 

 

27)  List the four general functions of the medial aspect of the superior parietal lobule, known as the precuneus:

 

 

 

28)  Two cortical areas may interact to produce a state of reflective self-awareness; identify these two cortical areas:

 

29)  List two cortical regions believed to be involved in “theory of mind” processing (e.g., empathy)

 

 

 

30)  The intraparietal sulcus is a multimodal integration area.  What does this mean?

 

 

31)  What is the role of the intraparietal sulcus in regard to salience of stimul in the environment?

 

 

 

32)  Identify two areas of the parietal lobe that function in “navigation in space” and in “three dimensional analysis

 

 

33)  (1/2) One parietal lobule is involved in a “concern mechanism”.  Identify this lobule:

 

 

34)  (1/2) The dorsal stream of the occipital cortex may be involved in deficits of _____________________in schizophrenia

 

 

35)  (1/2 ea=2 ½) Define the following terms from Chapter four:

 

A)     optic ataxia

 

 

B)     apraxia

 

C)     ideomotor apraxia

 

 

D)    dysgraphia

 

 

E)     stimultanagnosia

 

Subject Science
Due By (Pacific Time) 10/06/2014 03:00 am
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