Read through the following two studies. Discuss the possible validity and bias issues that may have occurred in each study. (See page 117-118 for an explanation about validity and bias.) Be specific and explain. Tanning and Skin Cancer An investigator would like to assess the association of melanoma (skin cancer) and exposure to infrared skin tanning services by using a hospital-based case–control study. Hospitalized individuals with melanoma will be compared with hospitalized patients without melanoma (controls). This hospital, located in a low-income area of the city, is famous nationwide for its expertise in melanoma. Individuals with melanoma (cases) from all over the country go to that hospital to get the highest quality care that can be provided. However, this hospital is not as well known for any other medical conditions as it is for melanoma. Therefore, cases would come from all over the country, and controls will be mostly local low-income individuals. Smoking and Diabetes A study to assess the association of diabetes and smoking compared a group of hospitalized individuals with diabetes (cases) with a group of hospital volunteers without diabetes (controls) who were full-time employees of the same hospital where the cases were identified.
* Your response should be at least 250 words