Project #47908 - Needlestick injuries

I need this paer paraphrased. The entire paper is completed I just need it to be plagerism free. Thanks

 

Needlestick Injuries EBT1 Task 1

 

 

 

 

Needlestick Injuries EBT1 Task 1

 

Tiphani Williams

 

Western Governors University

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A1- Article: Wilburn, S., (September 30, 2004). "Needlestick and Sharps Injury Prevention". Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 9 No. 3, Manuscript 4. Available: www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume92004/No3Sept04/InjuryPrevention.aspx

 

 

 

 

A2 Background or

 

 

 

Introduction- The purpose of this article is to discusses how to apply standard methods of occupational health and industry hygiene using the hierarchy of controls framework to prevent exposure to blood, and discusses evidence-based prevention and efficacy of particular control measures. Legislative progress and implementation of enforceable policy to protect health care workers is outlined. This article is structured, straight to the pint and very easy to understand.

 

 

 

 

 

 

A2 Review of the

 

 

 

Literature- The researches in this article reference material spanning when the collection of data began in 2003 and concluded in 2009 providing current supportive information. Needle stick risks are well described in the article and author did present her own reviews of literature after the intro and before the methodology The author cited about 17 different articles and there is sufficient info provided about the topic.

 

 

 

 

 

 

A2 Discussion of

 

 

 

Methodology- This article is a quantitive descriptive study discussing factors surrounding the circumstances of a needlestick injury by providing statistics that including graphs and charts that lists the risk of infection following a needlestick injury.

 

 

 

A2 Data Analysis- The researchers talk about a quantitative study using a descriptive explanation and incorporated it into analyzing the information, preventing needlestick Injuries and desirable characteristics of safer needle devices and educating medical staff regularly.

 

 

 

 

 

 

A2 Researcher’s

 

 

 

Conclusion- The conclusion was summarized, yet descriptive and very easy to understand. The author discussed the elimination of unnecessary injections and unnecessary sharps is the first step to preventing infection with bloodborne pathogens. . Protecting health care workers by providing appropriate staffing as well as demonstrating commitment to prevention through the implementation of a comprehensive health and safety program will improve worker safety and patient safety.

 

 

 

 

A3. Analysis of Five Areas

Looking at the data collected in the study, the researches provided an accurate conclusion for the article The conclusion can be backed up by the researchers more in depth studies from thier African and Asian studies Needle stick studies in this article compares implementation of Universal Precautions, needle less systems and safer needle devices

 

 

 

A 4. Ethical Issues- There were no Ethical issues noted as consent was obtained from the IRB.

 

A 5. Type of Research- This article was based on quantitive research. Quantitive research is any research based on something that can be accurately and precisely measured. For example The United States National Surveillance System for Health Care workers identified six devices that are responsible for the majority of needlestick and other sharps related injuries. These are hypodermic needles (32%), suture needles (19%), winged steel needles (butterfly) (12%), scalpel blades (7%), IV catheter stylets (6%), and phlebotomy needles (3%) (CDC,2004).

 

 

 

a Appropriate type of research? The type of research was appropriate for this study. 9/10 of the research evidence I collected were quantitive based literature. The other article collected was qualitive based research which refers to any research based on something that is impossible to accurately and precisely measure.

 

 

 

B1. Every year, hundreds of thousands of health care workers are exposed to deadly viruses such as hepatitis and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as a result of needlestick and sharps injuries. These preventable injuries expose workers to over 20 different bloodborne pathogens (CDC,2010) and result in an estimated 1,000 infections per year, the most common being hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV (International Health Care Worker Safety Center, 2009). In November 2009, the World Health Report published data demonstrating that 2.5 % of HIV cases among health care workers and 40% of hepatitis B and C cases among health care workers worldwide are the result of occupational exposure (WHO,2008). One or more interventions may provide an increase in the rate of needlestick prevention injuries among healthcare providers.

B3. Review of Research Articles

 

B3a. Annotated bibliography

American Nurses Association. (2005a). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. Washington, DC: ANA Publications.

 

 

 

This article discusses studies were selected if the intervention contained a study group and a control group . The study evaluated a double-gloving method, effectiveness of blunt needle, and bloodborne pathogen educational training program. The studies reported an overall reduction in glove perforations for the intervention group. In conclusion, this review suggests that both safeguard interventions and educational training programs are effective in reducing the risk of having needlestick injuries.

 

 

 

Arbury, S., & Williams, D. (2004). OSHA’s bloodborne pathogen standard. Presentation at the American Nurses Association Capacity Building Workshop on Preventing Needlestick Injuries, April 22, 2004

 

 

 

This article discusses the efforts of OSHA to address the injury rates among nursing home workers with a "National Emphasis Program" (NEP), which aims to address ergonomic stressors, falls, trips, slips, workplace violence, TB and bloodborne pathogens.

 

 

 

American Nurses Association. (2005). ANA’s needlestick prevention guide

 

 

 

 

 

This article talks about ANA currently training hundreds of nurses

 

across the country to become

 

involved in needlestick prevention. The ANA also has written guidelines to help prevent needlestick injuries.

 

 

 

 

Canadian Center for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). (2000). Needlestick injuries. Retrieved May 7, 2004 from www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/diseases/needlestick_injuries.html.

 

 

 

This article discusses surveillance programs that provide in-depth analysis of needle accidents. The goals of these programs should include:

 

  • Determining the rate of injuries.

 

 

  • Investigating the factors that cause the injuries.

 

 

  • Ensuring that injured workers receive proper treatment.

 

 

  • Identifying areas in which the prevention program needs improvement.

 

 

  • Leading to practical strategies for dealing with the problem.

 

 

 

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1997a). Evaluation of blunt suture needles in preventing percutaneous injuries among health-care workers during gynecologic surgical procedures. MMWR, 46, 25-9.

 

 

 

This article discusses and studies the Hep B vaccination rates healthcare workers

 

Reference material in the article was current with the period of the study. Testing for hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) routinely is not recommended. Testing is recommended for those at risk of occupational exposure (particularly healthcare and laboratory workers)

 

 

 

Gartner, K. (1992). Impact of a needleless intravenous system in a university hospital. American Journal of Infection Control, 20, 75-79.

 

 

 

This article discusses how needless devices are widely used. This retrospect data composes injury reports to local hospitals from employees who obtained injuries via needlestick between 2005-2010.

 

 

 

Yassi, A., McGill, M.L., & Khokhar, J.B. (1995). Efficacy and cost effectiveness of a needleless intravenous system. American Journal of Infection Control, 23, 57-64.

 

 

 

In this article ,of 108,000 shifts, 80 (<0.1%) had at least one needlestick injury occurrence, with 62 (78%) involving a contaminated needle. There was no difference in rate by unit type. Factors associated with needlestick occurrences on shifts were lower RN skill mix, a lower percentage of experienced staff, and fewer nursing care hours per patient per shift. The rates for needlestick injuries have decreased but still occur due to nurses not taking the time and appropriate steps to prevent injury.

 

 

 

Cardo, D.M., Culver, D.H., Ciesielski, C.A., Srivastava, P.U., Marcus, R., Abiteboul, D., et al. 2007 case-control study of HIV seroconversion in health care workers after percutaneous exposure. New England Journal of Medicine,

 

The CDC reports that 5,100 health care workers become infected with hepatitis B each year through job-related blood contact. There have been 54 documented cases of HIV seroconversions among U.S. health care workers resulting from occupational exposures. Needle stick injuries caused by hollow-bore needles accounted for 86 percent of all reported occupational HIV exposures. Nurses make up 24 percent of the cases of HIV infection among health care workers known or thought to have been infected on the job. This article showed that 83 percent of these injuries can be prevented--most through the use of needles with safety features or needleless systems. According to the American Hospital Association, one case of serious infection by bloodborne pathogen can result in expenditures of $1 million or more for testing, follow-up, time lost from work, and disability payments.

 

 

 

Eucomed. (2004). European healthcare workers at risk! Retrieved May 13, 2004 from www.eucomed.be/?x=4&y=46&z=118

 

 

 

The conclusion drawn by the researchers was the view of the nurses views inadequate staff as a patient safety issue. If hospitals had an adequate amount of nurses, nurses would not have to hurry through tasks and needlestick rates with continue to drop.

 

 

 

Davis, M.S. (1999). Advanced precautions for today’s O.R.: The operating room professional’s handbook for the prevention of sharps injuries and bloodborne exposures. Atlanta: Sweinbinder Publications LLC

 

 

 

 

 

This article discusses cuts or needlestick injuries that occur in 15% of the operations. Several factors were found to significantly alter the risk of blood contamination or injury: surgical specialty, role of each person, duration of the procedure, amount of blood loss, number of needles used, and volume of irrigation fluid used. Risk calculations that use average values to include all personnel in the operating room or all operations performed substantially underestimate risk for surgeons and first assistants, who accounted for 81% of all body contamination and 65% of the injuries. The area of the body contaminated also changed with the surgical specialty.

 

 

 

 

 

B3b. Efficacy. The researchers presented a very reliable case for the necessity of interventions by the employer to increase education classes among health care workers. It is well documented and accepted through the research and references the importance of education and meetings to reduce needlestick injuries by HCW, to prevent or reduce the risk of diseases, and to reduce the cost of treatment from needlestick injuries among HCWin the healthcare setting. All of the research reviewed included measures to increase awareness and educating the staff. Despite these efforts needelstick injuries still remain high. The research shows this problem is not limited to the United States, it is a worldwide issue.

 

 

 

B3c. Tools. The primary tool the researchers used were surveys for the reasons needlestick injuries occur. Actual needlestick exposure tallies were used for all but one of the studies for the rates of needlestick injuries. Statistics were analyzed by position and location for most of the articles.

 

 

 

B3d. Effect on results. The surveys the researchers used could have an effect on the results. If the survey had a limited amount of selections there may not have been an accurate representation of the needlestick injuries. Data that was self reported for occupational health injuries will not be as accurate as physical records.

 

 

 

B5. Recommendation

 

In view of the greater part of the literature, training has been successful in diminishing needlestick rates of HCW. One of my proposals for a nursing system to enhance needlestick damage rates is to command instructive projects (Gartner 1992).

 

 

 

This incorporates activities that accentuate persistent wellbeing, aversion of potentially getting a disease. Dynamic advancement by the association with accentuation on the imperativeness of teaching HCW's (Fisher 1994) will build attention to expanded needlestick injuries. Adequate staffing of HCW's is an alternate refered to boundary. Having needless and sufficient staffing can beat this boundary (OSHA 2010).

 

B6. Theoretical Models

 

 

As a nursing measure to protect HCW’s this research could be used to create a theoretical framework to

 

provide Healthcare workers safety through education. The theoretical framework used in creating

 

evidenced practice is effective by using evidence from a variety of research studies. All of the research

 

studies reviewed provides references that validate the risk of HIV HEPC or HEPB infection within the

 

healthcare setting. The ten articles reviewed could be used to create a theoretical model by presenting the

 

combined concepts of these studies and interventions.

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

 

 

 

American Nurses Association. (2005a). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. Washington, DC: ANA Publications.

 

 

 

Arbury, S., & Williams, D. (2004). OSHA’s bloodborne pathogen standard. Presentation at the American Nurses Association Capacity Building Workshop on Preventing Needlestick Injuries, April 22, 2004

 

 

 

American Nurses Association. (2005). ANA’s needlestick prevention guide

 

 

 

Canadian Center for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). (2000). Needlestick injuries. Retrieved May 7, 2004

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1997a). Evaluation of blunt suture needles in preventing percutaneous injuries among health-care workers during gynecologic surgical procedures.

 

 

 

Gartner, K. (1992). Impact of a needleless intravenous system in a university hospital. American Journal of Infection Control, 20, 75-79.

 

 

 

 

 

Yassi, A., McGill, M.L., & Khokhar, J.B. (1995). Efficacy and cost effectiveness of a needleless intravenous system. American Journal of Infection Control, 23, 57-64.

 

 

 

 

 

Cardo, D.M., Culver, D.H., Ciesielski, C.A., Srivastava, P.U., Marcus, R., Abiteboul, D., et al. 2007 case-control study of HIV seroconversion in health care workers after percutaneous exposure. New England Journal of Medicine,

 

 

 

 

 

Eucomed. (2004). European healthcare workers at risk! Retrieved May 13, 2004

 

 

 

Davis, M.S. (1999). Advanced precautions for today’s O.R.: The operating room professional’s handbook for the prevention of sharps injuries and bloodborne exposures. Atlanta: Sweinbinder Publications LLC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Subject General
Due By (Pacific Time) 11/18/2014 12:00 am
Report DMCA
TutorRating
pallavi

Chat Now!

out of 1971 reviews
More..
amosmm

Chat Now!

out of 766 reviews
More..
PhyzKyd

Chat Now!

out of 1164 reviews
More..
rajdeep77

Chat Now!

out of 721 reviews
More..
sctys

Chat Now!

out of 1600 reviews
More..
sharadgreen

Chat Now!

out of 770 reviews
More..
topnotcher

Chat Now!

out of 766 reviews
More..
XXXIAO

Chat Now!

out of 680 reviews
More..
All Rights Reserved. Copyright by AceMyHW.com - Copyright Policy