Project #51082 - Short Answers

Choose 7 out of the 12 questions and write 1-2 paragraphs for each question. Anthropology Class 

1. Primates: describe the taxonomy of primates presented in your book. Review your primate project and evaluate (or re-evaluate) the infra order of each primate you chose. Describe in detail the three infra orders found in the suborder haplorhinni. What specific characteristics will help you identify members of each infra order. What features would you look for to identify a strepsirhinni primate?


2. Genus Homo: Using your book and any notes from class, Compare Homo Erectus, Homo Neanderthalensis, and Homo Sapiens terms of the following features:

Brain Size, Cranial Features (at least 3 features), Body size and Robusicity, Tool use/culture. You may use a chart or write it out in paragraph form.


3. Hominids: Give a detailed description of your favorite hominid (pre-homo) studied in this class- and clearly explain its relationship to the genus Homo.  Review the following in terms of its skeletal features: Cranium, pelvis, legs, arms. What is the most likely direct ancestor of this species? Are there any likely descendants?


4. Race and anthropometry: Using Chapter 8 and 15, discuss metric and non-metric traits and their relationship to race/ancestry. Which method (if any) is more accurate in determining ancestry and why?


5. Genetics: Solve the following genetics problem: Determine how the following traits would assort.  Use E/e for earlobes (Unattached is Dominant); use D/d for dimples (having dimples is dominant).

a. Given these two traits, what are the possible gametes?

b. Create a double square to assort these two traits. Assume the first parent has unattached earlobes, and does have dimples (heterozygous). The second parent also shows both traits in their phenotype and is heterozygous for both traits.

c.  What are the possible genotypes for each child?

d. What are the possible phenotypes for each child?

e. What are the chances of having a child that is homozygous recessive for both traits? (provide a percentage)

f.  What are the chances of having a child that is heterozygous for both traits? (provide a percentage)

g. Is there any possibility that a child will be born to these parents that has attached earlobes and no dimples? Why or why not?

h. add a third trait (Cleft Chin (G, g) to this and create a triple square. Answer the questions based on this additional trait (assume parent 1 does not show the trait (gg) and parent 2 is heterozygous).  Up to 5 points bonus.


6) Sex and gender: Using chapter 7 and 8, describe the best way to determine the sex of an individual (what part of the body would you look at and what differences would you look for?). What features would you examine if the pelvis is not available. What factors do you need to take into account to be certain you do not mis-identify the sex?


7) Osteology: List the correct osteological terms that can be used to describe the following body parts. Some common names for bones may actually refer to more than one bone. For full credit you must give any and all bones associated with the body part. Do not list anything that is not a bone, and you should not list all the parts of the bone or features of a bone.

a. shoulder

b. jaw

c. kneecap

d. collar bone

e. chest

f. shin

g. the teeth you use to bite into an apple

h. a cranial bone with no hair i. the teeth that are not present in children, but present in adults

j. bones that you sit on

k. elbow-


8) Primates: Compare apes and monkeys. Describe their position in the family tree in the order of primates. What features do they share, what features set them apart from other groups in the order of primates?


9) Mammals and human/primate classification: What sets primates apart from other mammals and from humans? (You should discuss specific features of the skeleton, as well as more general morphological characteristics, and behaviors.)


10) Synthesis: What features on which bones would you look for to determine the following pathologies? How would you know if an individual was suffering from the following conditions?

a. Tuberculosis

b. Syphilis

c. Infection

d. Healed fracture

e. Trephination

 if you suspected someone was murdered, rather than died a natural death, what sorts of clues would you look for on the bones of the deceased?


11) Synthesis: When examining a fossil, you are trying to determine if it was bipedal, quadrupedal, or arboreal. Which traits would you look for to make your determination. Assume you have a full skeleton. Bonus: assume you only have a partial cranium (including teeth), and some finger bones.


12) Synthesis: Using your knowledge of gene flow, genetic drift, natural selection, and mutation, describe to the best of your ability how one of the traits unique to humans evolved. You may choose from one of the following traits: increased cranial capacity, bipedalism, long thumbs, or broad collarbones (clavicle). Bonus: choose another trait.


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Due By (Pacific Time) 12/09/2014 12:00 pm
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