Project #51432 - Physiology Review for Final HELP URGENT

Question 1 (1 point)

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A substance transported through a membrane via a protein carrier, requires no energy and can reach a transport maximum or saturation would best be referred to as:
 
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Question 2 (1 point)

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Fick's Law is used to describe the movement of substances in either an open environment or across a barrier.  If a substance in one system has a thicker barrier than the same substance in a second system.  The first system would have a flux that is _______ than the second system.
 
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Question 3 (1 point)

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In the following diagram, the small dots represent a univalent cation such as Na+ and K+ and the large dots represent glucose.  The dotted line represents a semipermeable membrane that will allow water and glucose, but not the cation, to permeate.  The cation is set at 13 mOsm for both chambers, the glucose is set at 8 mOsm in the left chamber and 3 mOsm in the right chamber.  In what direction will the water have net movement?

 
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from right to left

from left to right

no net movement of water

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Question 4 (1 point)

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In the following diagram, the small dots represent a univalent cation and the large dots represent glucose.  The dotted line represents a semipermeable membrane that will allow water and the cation, but not the glucose to permeate.  The cation is set at 13 mOsm for both chambers, the glucose is set at 8 mOsm in the left chamber and 3 mOsm in the right chamber.  In what direction will the water have net movement?

 
Question 4 options:

from right to left

from left to right

no net movement of water

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Question 5 (1 point)

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During an action potential, a defective voltage-gated K+ channel fails to open.  The outcome of this action potential would be:
 
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Question 6 (1 point)

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You place an excitable cell in a solution of 10 mEq/L K+ (Normal is around 5 mEq/L K+).  The cell would ___________.
 
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Question 7 (1 point)

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A mutated muscle cell has troponin that is unable to bind to Ca++ as quickly as it should.  The result of this mutated troponin to muscular contraction would be:
 
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Question 8 (1 point)

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When the majority of ATP is made during the metabolic process of cellular respiration inside the mitochondria, the energy to form the ATP comes from:
 
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Question 9 (1 point)

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A drug was given that inhibited acetylcholinesterase in the NMJ only.  The muscle would _____________.
 
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Question 10 (1 point)

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Choose the following incorrect statement:
 
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Question 11 (1 point)

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A neuronal receptor is coupled to Ca++ channels and is stimulated by a certain neurotransmitter.  The transmitter, when released to the neuron, would cause the neuron to ____________.
 
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Question 12 (1 point)

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A neuron contains a receptor that decreases the permeability of K+ channels.  A ligand binds to the receptor.  The cell would _________.
 
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Question 13 (1 point)

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Which of the following would block the postganglionic neurons in the autonomic nervous system?
 
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Question 14 (1 point)

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A drug that blocked beta 1 adrenergic receptors would cause ________________.
 
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Question 15 (1 point)

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You have administered an unknown drug to a patient (gasp!) and are trying to discern among the following drugs which one it was you gave.  You notice the following signs for 15 minutes in your patient:

1. The heart rate has substantially increased

2. The heart is pumping much harder

3. The blood pressure is elevated slightly

4. There is vasodilatation of skeletal muscle arteries.

5. The metabolic rate of the entire body is significantly elevated

6. The bladder wall has relaxed

7. The bronchioles have dilated

8. The coronary arteries are dilated

 
Question 15 options:

epinephrine

acetylcholine

an a adrenergic receptor agonist

a b1 adrenergic receptor antagonist

a b2  adrenergic receptor agonist

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Question 16 (1 point)

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The Na-K pump is responsible for:
 
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Question 17 (1 point)

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Which of the following is true?
 
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Question 18 (1 point)

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A neurotransmitter (GAB acts to open Cl- channels in a postsynaptic neuron.  This would be an excellent example of:
 
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Question 19 (1 point)

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You notice that  a neuron has been inhibited by a certain molecule for several days.  This suggests that the molecule was probably a/an:
 
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Question 20 (1 point)

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Small motor units are useful for _________ compared to large motor units.
 
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Question 21 (1 point)

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The cellular biological basis for rigor mortis is:
 
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Question 22 (1 point)

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An action potential has a plateau before repolarization commences.  Which of the following is a reasonable explanation for the plateau?
 
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Question 23 (1 point)

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In the chart above the most likely event occurring at point 6 is:  NOTE: ligand-gated is the same as receptor-gated

 
Question 23 options:

leaky K+ channels are open, voltage-gated Na+ channels are inactivated, voltage gated K+ channels are open

ligand-gated Na+ channels are activated, voltage-gated Na+ channels are inactivated, voltage gated K+ channels are open

ligand-gated Na+ channels are inactivated

leaky K+ channels are closed, voltage-gated Na+ channels are inactivated, voltage-gated K+ channels are closed

leaky K+ channels are closed, voltage-gated Na+ channels are inactivated, voltage-gated K+ channels are open

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Question 24 (1 point)

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In contrasting simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion and secondary transporters, which of the following is true?
 
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Question 25 (1 point)

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The event directly causing exocytosis of neurotransmitters of a neuron is:
 
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Question 26 (1 point)

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If a presynaptic neuron generates an EPSP that is subthreshold,
 
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Question 27 (1 point)

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The Ca++ pump in the sarcoplasmic reticulum is operating at a low capacity.  The result is:
 
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Question 28 (1 point)

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As the thin filaments begin to overlap with each other, muscle tension will:
 
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Question 29 (1 point)

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Which of the following lead to decreased Ca++ levels in the cell (intracellular)?
 
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Question 30 (1 point)

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Which of the following is not a characteristic action of metabotropic receptors?
 
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Question 31 (1 point)

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The two heart sounds are heard at:
 
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Question 32 (1 point)

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A reading of diastolic pressure is _______ and ______ will be heard through the stethoscope at this time.
 
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Question 33 (1 point)

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If P waves are not coordinated with QRS complexes,
 
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Question 34 (1 point)

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A mutation has affected the Ca2+/Na+ antiporter in the T-tubule of the cardiac contractile cell such that it has a lowered transport maximum.  As a result, which of the following will occur?
 
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Question 35 (1 point)

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Systemic capillaries have _______ at the arterial end due to _______.
 
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Question 36 (1 point)

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Pulmonary capillaries have _______ due to _______.
 
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Question 37 (1 point)

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The first heart sound is observed when the
 
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Question 38 (1 point)

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Cardiac autorhythmic cells:
 
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Question 39 (1 point)

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At phase 2 (plateau) of the contractile cell membrane potential graph (membrane potential v tim, the following channels are open:
 
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Question 40 (1 point)

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During inspiration, pressure within the alveoli is _______ compared to atmospheric pressure.
 
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Question 41 (1 point)

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Residual air is due to:
 
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Question 42 (1 point)

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Which of the following is responsible for decreasing surface tension in the alveoli?
 
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Question 43 (1 point)

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According to gas laws, when the volume of a space of air is increased, the pressure ________.
 
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Question 44 (1 point)

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Which of the following is NOT  a muscle of deep inspiration?
 
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Question 45 (1 point)

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If the intrapleural pressure equals the atmospheric pressure, the lung will:
 
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Question 46 (1 point)

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A patient had histamine sprayed into his bronchioles.  This would cause the bronchiolar resistance to ___________ and the airflow to _________.
 
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Question 47 (1 point)

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During inspiration, the partial pressure of O2 is less inside the alveoli, compared to the atmosphere, because:
 
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Question 48 (1 point)

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Which of the following would increase the PO2 of the blood leaving the alveolus?
 
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Question 49 (1 point)

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During an asthma attack the bronchiles constrict.  The corresponding arterioles will:
 
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Question 50 (1 point)

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Hemoglobin is most like to become saturated in the:
 
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Question 51 (1 point)

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Exercise would cause the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve to shift to the ______.
 
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Question 52 (1 point)

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An important buffer for the plasma and body is the carbonic acid (bicarbonate ion), H2CO3, buffer.  Hypoventilation would cause the pH of the blood to become
 
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Question 53 (1 point)

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The O2 saturation of hemoglobin as blood goes through the lungs would cause
 
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Question 54 (1 point)

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O2 + HHb --> HbO2 + H+ is most likely to occur in the:
 
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Question 55 (1 point)

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Forceful expiration requires the use of:
 
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Question 56 (1 point)

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In response to increased levels of CO2 in the blood, the central chemoreceptors respond directly to:
 
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Question 57 (1 point)

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Increased PCO2 would result in:
 
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Question 58 (1 point)

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When PO2 levels drop below _____ mmHg, peripheral O2 receptors will be sitmulated.
 
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Question 59 (1 point)

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Which of the following factors will increase the rate and depth of breathing?
 
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Question 60 (1 point)

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The breakdown of foods in the GI tract is referred to as:
 
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Question 61 (1 point)

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The force and duration of the smooth muscle contraction is directly related to
 
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Question 62 (1 point)

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The enteric nervous system is
 
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Question 63 (1 point)

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Short GI segments exhibiting intestinal contraction and relaxation characterized by circular muscle contraction in one segment while the circular muscle in the receiving segment relaxes is referred to as:
 
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Question 64 (1 point)

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Which part of the GI tract is characterized with peristaltic mixing and propulsion, site of HCl, pepsinogen, HCO3-, gastrin, histamine and gastric lipase secretion, digestion of proteins and fats, and absorption of lipid-soluble substances?
 
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Question 65 (1 point)

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In response to the hormone secretin, the pancreas secretes a fluid
 
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Question 66 (1 point)

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Increased parasympathetic stimulation of the intestine would result in
 
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Question 67 (1 point)

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Decreased levels of bile salts in the bile would interfere with
 
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Question 68 (1 point)

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A drug that blocks the action of cholecystokinin (CCK) would affect:
 
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Question 69 (1 point)

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A hormone that stimulates parietal cells in the stomach is
 
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Question 70 (1 point)

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The gastric phase of gastric secretion is triggered by,
 
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Question 71 (1 point)

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Fat absorption occurs primarily in the
 
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Question 72 (1 point)

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Absorption of ions and water occurs primarily in the
 
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Question 73 (1 point)

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The secretion of acid by parietal cells is done primarily by
 
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Question 74 (1 point)

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Secondary active transport of glucose is common in the absorptive epithelium.
 
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Question 75 (1 point)

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When absorbed nutrients reach the liver lobule, they are delivered to the hepatocytes by:
 
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Question 76 (1 point)

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If maltose is forming at a steady rate (no increase/no decrease, then:

 
Question 76 options:

#  the saturation point of the reaction rate for amylase has been reached.

the substrate concentration is increasing.

the temperature is increasing.

the pH is decreasing.

the enzyme has been denatured.

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Question 77 (1 point)

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When amylase moves through the GI tract, its activity is most affected by:
 
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Question 78 (1 point)

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The process whereby a product of a hormone's actions eventually ends up to decrease the release of that hormone would be referred to as:
 
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Question 79 (1 point)

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A drug is an antagonist of aldosterone secretion.  You predict that the outcome of this antagonism would be:
 
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Question 80 (1 point)

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In response to respiratory acidosis:
 
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Question 81 (1 point)

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A certain drug class causes the Na-K-2Cl (activ transport system in thick ascending loop of Henle to be inhibited.  You predict which of the following will occur?
 
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Question 82 (1 point)

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If a person is severely dehydrated, with low volume and high osmolarity of the blood, all of the following would be increased except:
 
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Question 83 (1 point)

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Which of the following statements about urine concentration is false?
 
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Question 84 (1 point)

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In response to increased GFR, the ______ will sense the increased flow and _______ the afferent arteriole.
 
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Question 85 (1 point)

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Which of the following conditions would fail to reduce hypertension?
 
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Question 86 (1 point)

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An inhibitor to angiotensin converting enzyme would result in
 
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Question 87 (1 point)

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Tubular fluid in the proximal tubule has a/the
 
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Question 88 (1 point)

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If glucose has a renal clearance which is 0 ml/min,
 
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Question 89 (1 point)

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As a joke, a friend has put your head into a paper bag and made you breathe into it for a while.  Eventually, your urine will become:
 
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Question 90 (1 point)

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The following values are found in the glomerulus: PG (hydrostatic pressure in glomerulus) = 60 mm Hg, PB (hydrostatic pressure in Bowman�s capsule) = 18 mm Hg, pG (plasma colloid osmotic pressure)= 32 mm Hg.   What is the net filtration?
 
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Question 91 (1 point)

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The thick part of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle is the active part of the countercurrent multiplier. Which of these is actively transported out of the cells of this tubule and into the interstitial fluid?
 
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Question 92 (1 point)

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Which of the following accurately describes a protein:
 
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Question 93 (1 point)

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Gluconeogenesis involves the building of _____ and is stimulated in ____ by the hormone ______.
 
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Question 94 (1 point)

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Type O blood can be given to anyone because:
 
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Question 95 (1 point)

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If insulin is present in the bloodstream, glucose in the hepatocytes will:
 
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Question 96 (1 point)

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Release of parathyroid is in response to ________ levels of Ca2+, and causes ________ of bone.
 
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Question 97 (1 point)

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Glucagon acts primarily in the:
 
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Question 98 (1 point)

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A certain commonly used drug on college campuses that inhibits ADH would cause which of the following?
 
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Question 99 (1 point)

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When blood glucose levels fall, _______.
 
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Question 100 (1 point)

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The adrenal medulla produces:
 
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Question 101 (1 point)

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The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex is:
 
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Question 102 (1 point)

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Proper growth requires ________.
 
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Question 103 (1 point)

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Which of the following is NOT associated with growth hormone effects?
 
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Question 104 (1 point)

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Vitamin D3 is necessary for _______.
 
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Question 105 (1 point)

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A rise in cortisol would cause each of the following except one.  Identify the exception.
 
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Question 106 (1 point)

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Ovulation is immediately triggered by hormonal events that involve:
 
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Question 107 (1 point)

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After ovulation occurs, the primary hormone during the luteal phase of the female cycle is_____ to maintain the lining of the uterus until implantation of the developing embryo.
 
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Question 108 (1 point)

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The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is
 
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Question 109 (1 point)

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The effects of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissue include
 
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GH
 
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Question 111 (1 point)

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Parathyroid hormone
 
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Question 112 (1 point)

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Elevated levels of calcium ion in the blood stimulate the secretion of the hormone
 
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Question 113 (1 point)

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Vitamin D (calcitriol)
 
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Question 114 (1 point)

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The process of disassembling fatty acids into two-carbon units inside mitochondria is called
 
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Question 115 (1 point)

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A substance that the liver produces when metabolizing fatty acids into soluble forms of fat for distributing to tissues is
 
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Question 116 (1 point)

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When blood glucose levels fall,
 
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Insulin secretion
 
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Insulin
 
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Question 119 (1 point)

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Glucagon
 
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Subject Science
Due By (Pacific Time) 12/10/2014 12:15 pm
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