Project #52263 - Statistics in the Behavioral Sciences

Imagine you are a researcher who just finished collecting data on a sample of public school students. In this study, you were interested in the following variables: math scores, science scores, parents’ education (highest of the two parents), and achievement self-concept as measured at the beginning of the school year and at the end of the school year. (This data set appears at the end of the prompt). Ask yourself the following questions:

 

  1. How many students scored between 50 and 60 on their math test? How many scored between 70 and 80? Between 80 and 90? Between 90 and 100? What are the relative frequencies of these categories?
  2. Does a significant correlation exist between math and science scores? If so, what is the relationship?
  3. Does a significant correlation exist between math scores and parent education? If so, what is the relationship?
  4. Does a significant correlation exist between science scores and parent education? If so, what is the relationship?
  5. Did student achievement self-concept scores improve from the beginning of the year to the end of the year?
  6. Do students who have a parent who graduated from high school have better achievement self-concept scores (beginning of the year) than students who do not have a parent who graduated from high school? (This will require you to group parents into two groups: less than 12 years of education and 12 years of education or higher. Consider creating a column next to the parent education column and identifying them as a “1” or a “2,” and then test for differences in student achievement self-concept between these two groups. It may be helpful to sort your data.)
  7. Do math scores differ across the three grades? If so, where are the differences?
  8. Do science scores differ across the three grades? If so, where are the differences?
  9. Do achievement self-concept scores (beginning of the year) differ across the three grades? If so, what are the differences?

 

For this assignment, decide which chart or graph you will need to produce or which statistical analysis you will need to conduct to answer each of these questions. Hint: You will run at least one of each of the following (you may have to run one more than once): correlation, t-test (either independent or dependent samples), or an F-test (ANOVA).

 

For each statistical analysis you run, state the null and alternative hypotheses, the degrees of freedom (if applicable), the critical values, and other appropriate values (e.g., between group variance, within group variance), the test statistic itself, and your conclusion. For an F-test (ANOVA), be sure to run a Sheffé test (if applicable) to determine where the differences (if any) exist. Conduct tests at the .05, two-tailed level.

 

You may use statistical software to calculate values for this assignment. However, you must include all printouts and explain what the values in these printouts mean. In other words, you cannot just turn in the printouts. The instructor needs to know you understand what these values are and what these printouts mean. Students may earn extra credit if they calculate all statistics by hand and show their work.

 

After you complete all analyses and draw your conclusions, summarize your findings in a page-long report. What conclusions can you draw about this population of students? Be specific, especially where significant correlations or significant differences exist. This report should be the first page of a longer document that includes explanations, printouts, or handwritten work for all individual analyses (i.e., all 9 questions posed).

 

Subject ID

Grade in School

Math Score (0–100)

English Score (0–100)

Parent's Years of Education (highest)

Achievement Self-Concept Score (beginning of school year, 0–20)

Achievement Self-Concept Score (end of school year, 0–20)

1

5th

80

90

12

10

14

2

5th

89

70

12

10

15

3

5th

87

70

13

8

10

4

6th

90

83

15

13

20

5

6th

93

69

8

15

17

6

5th

70

80

9

16

19

7

5th

79

97

18

9

16

8

5th

82

89

18

7

12

9

6th

70

89

9

6

14

10

7th

90

67

7

12

18

11

7th

99

82

12

15

16

12

7th

69

89

12

13

19

13

7th

68

84

12

8

14

14

5th

70

92

12

9

13

15

6th

80

99

13

5

10

16

6th

80

98

16

10

14

17

7th

90

65

14

10

17

18

7th

99

81

14

10

13

19

7th

67

86

16

3

9

20

7th

60

90

16

15

17

21

7th

69

95

18

16

19

22

5th

90

80

16

19

18

23

5th

87

74

18

6

8

24

6th

76

83

16

10

15

25

6th

89

88

16

11

13

Subject Mathematics
Due By (Pacific Time) 12/16/2014 01:00 pm
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