Project #54533 - Disscussion board 9

 After reading pages 297 - 355 of Van Doren's book, do the following:

Post your agreements and disagreements with Van Doren's claim that The Twentieth Century involved the Triumph of Democracy.  In doing so recount the examples he uses, also include your own insights about the failure and fall of Communism, the de-colonization of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, the current struggles with theocracies and related issues of Islamic nationalism, the rise of China and tempering of its governmental policies and development of capitalism, the demise of the British, French, and other empires, the present world at relative peace with the exceptions of the Sudan, Israel, Iraq, and Afghanistan, etc. 

Post your arguments in Discussion Board 9_1 by the following Tuesday, 12:00 a. m. CST.  Also, by the following Thursday, 12:00 a. m. CST, respond thoughtfully to at least one other student's postings by asking questions, amplifying what was written, relating it to your own experience, showing a good example of the viewpoint, or giving and explaining a contrary viewpoint.  Engage the other student(s) in the material.

Discussion Board 9_2

After completing this week's assigned Adler reading, post your point of view and experiences as directed below to Discussion Board 9_2 by the following Tuesday, 12:00 a.m. CST.

Discuss three of Adler's claims about Beauty in Chapters 14 and 15.   Relate each of these claims to your own life.  Discuss what it might be like to experience life without beauty…no beautiful sights, sounds, smells, tastes, words, images, feelings, etc.  Find a line or two from a song or poem that you think is really beautiful in sound and in meaning?  Explain why you think it is so beautiful.  Can something really ugly in one sense be beautiful in another sense or way?  Explain.  (Next week you will continue looking at the centrality of beauty in human existence.)

addtional Learning Outcomes By the end of this week you should be able assess the triumphs and growth of democracy in the last 100 years, discuss the central elements of work, play, and leisure in human affairs. This week's Real World Application assignment will have you completing a credit card analysis. Weekly Reading In Charles Van Doren's A History of Knowledge please read Chapter 12 "The Twentieth Century: The Triumph of Democracy" (pp. 297 - 320) and Chapter 13 "The Twentieth Century: Science and Technology" (pp. 321 – 355). From Six Great Ideas by Mortimer J. Adler read Chapter 14 "From Truth and Goodness to Beauty" (pp. 99 – 102) and Chapter 15 "Enjoyable Beauty" (pp. 103-110). Focus on Reading (Notes from your Professor) The following notes refer to this week's Adler readings. From Truth and Goodness to Beauty 106405850.jpg If you recall, this book deals with Six Great Ideas. This week Adler ties together one of the two triads of good ideas; Truth (being supreme) with Goodness and then Beauty. (In the second triad Justice is the supreme value over equality and liberty). You may recall descriptive (describing the way things are) and prescriptive (the way things should be). Needs (real goods) are things that are NECESSARY for life versus Wants (apparent goods) things we desire but do not need. Subjective: I am the source of authority; the expert. Objective; the source of authority is outside of my opinion; it can be proven. A linear relationship exists between truth and taste; most of us fluidly move from one end to the other depending upon the issue. TRUTH ------------------------------------------- TASTE (real goods: needs) (apparent goods: wants) Real Goods are relative, not to the subjective individual but to the "desires inherent in human nature." Ergo, if we are each "equal" in our humanness, 'real goods' are universal. Since all humans need these goods there are objectively true). Adler suggests some 'value judgments belong in the sphere of truth. Prescriptive judgments of real goods OUGHT to be desired because they fill our natural (common/universal) needs. These differ from descriptive judgments; that pertain to the way that things are in reality. Apparent goods (wants) are relative to individual desire and therefore are subjective. Note: when "we" WANT something, we say it is good (simply because we want it). Although we may judge it good, the TRUTH is that it in fact may NOT be good. We simply think it is good because we desire this WANT. (Since a need is necessary for life; all genuine needs are good). Truth is the sovereign good; the ultimate value. It "trumps" beauty and good. Objective truth exists in a reality that is independent of "us" (our mind). This is true whether we agree or not and it exists independently of whether we are thinking of it or not. Since we get to truth when our mind aligns with reality; when this alignment occurs - we have a truth. Subjective truth rests upon bad thinking, poor logic, "from the fallibility and deficiencies or inadequacies of human thought." Goodness is not objective in the way that truth is. Adler begins, in page 101, to discuss this difference. In essence, "beauty is not identical with truth...Beauty would appear to be more intimately related to goodness." Enjoyable Beauty Epigrammatic: concise, clever, amusing Profundity: deep insight, great depth of knowledge Beauty is harder to "pin down" than goodness or truth since it is has less clarity and precision. Thomas Aquinas, "The beautiful is that which pleases us upon being seen." Define 'pleases' as 'satisfies,' "Seen" does not mean apprehend visually. Seeing can be with the mind (ears) rather than the eyes. Beautiful is reserved for that which pleases us to the highest degree; most exceptionally. "The beautiful is that which pleases us upon being contemplated" or thought about. Immanuel Kant, "The pleasure must be a totally disinterested one." Adler, "What Kant means is that the object fall outside the sphere of our practical concerns." (We do not have to HAVE it in order to enjoy it). Objects can be placed in one of two categories; physical or ideas. Goodness is the value (we give) to the sphere of desire (if we desire it, we perceive it as good - even though it may not be). QUESTION: So far it appears that beauty is entirely subjective. As people differ in tastes so they differ in respect to what gives them pleasure when they gaze upon it. We have no right to impose our taste upon others UNLESS we can find a basis to 'prescribe' this to others... they ought to also enjoy or find beauty in what I find to be beautiful.

Subject English
Due By (Pacific Time) 01/26/2015 02:00 pm
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