Project #5506 - Vibration Project


Project Overview
Wind energy is a field in engineering that continues to grow in the United States and around the world. As turbine manufacturers continue to develop larger and larger turbines in an effort to increase efficiency and lower the cost of energy (COE), the blades and support structures become more complex. In upstate New York, there are currently 9 large scale wind farms with a total capacity of 1.6 GW.1,2 One of the largest wind farms in the state of New York is the Maple Ridge Wind Farm located on Tug Hill near Lowville, NY. The Maple Ridge Wind Farm is made up of 195 Vestas V82 wind turbines which have a rated capacity of 1.65 MW.3


Model Development
The goal of this project is to develop a model for the dynamic loading of a wind turbine blade as the blade rotates and is subjected to a non-uniform wind profile. Wind turbines are typically immersed in the atmospheric boundary layer profile such that the blade is subjected to a range of wind speeds for every rotation cycle. As such, the blades are subjected to periodic forcing by the nature of the aerodynamic loading resulting from the varying wind speed at different elevations. In the most complex case, wind turbines are subjected to highly turbulent flow fields that can result in random blade loading.
For this project, you will need to research the structural design of wind turbine blades so that you can develop a governing equation for the blade loading. This includes the geometric design as well as the materials used for the construction. Although the exact design elements of the Vestas V82 may be difficult to find due to the proprietary nature of the wind energy field, you should be able to find general information regarding wind turbine design and apply these concepts to the V82 wind turbine.
To develop a full model of the wind turbine blade, you will need to define the loading that the blade is subjected to. Here we are interested in the periodic forcing resulting from the average wind profile, and therefore your forcing function should be a periodic function such a sine or cosine with a frequency that is related to the blade rotation speed.
Presentation of Results
The results from your research and modeling should be presented clearly and concisely in a final report. Your report should include, at minimum, the following sections:
• Introduction – Discuss the design problem and provide general background information about the wind turbine and any other information you feel is relevant.
• Wind Turbine Design – Discuss the results of your research into the design of wind turbine blades. This should include a discussion of the general structure, materials used, and a characterization of these materials. Additionally, more specific information about the Vestas V82 should be included here such as the details of the blade geometry and the design parameters of this wind turbine including blade length, optimal wind speeds, rotation speeds, etc.
• Vibrations Modeling – Discuss the vibrations model that you have developed for this complex structure. It is not expected that you model the blade and the loading exactly, so discuss the simplifications and approximations that have been made. If you make simplifying assumptions such as a specific mass distribution, blade cross sectional area distribution, or loading distribution, discuss how you arrived at these values and indicate where your model may or may not break down.
• Results – Present the results of your vibration analysis. At the very least, you should be able to plot a blade deflection as a function of rotation angle. Additional considerations may be deflection angles for a range of wind speeds or rotating speeds. With a calculation of the blade displacements, you can also look at the structural loading in the blade.
• Conclusions – Provide a discussion of what you have found and the results of your modeling. Include details such as where could your model could be improved, limitations to your approximations/simplifications. Ultimately, does your model make sense and are the results reasonable?
• References – Please be sure to include citations and references for any resources that you use including web pages, journal articles, text books, etc.
• Appendices – Use this space to include any calculations that were performed by hand, Matlab calculations, CAD models, etc.
Additional Resources (On Reserve for MAE-321 at the Science Library)
• Manwell, J. F., McGowan, J. G., and Rogers, A. L., Wind Energy Explained: Theory, Design and Application. 2nd Ed. Wiley, 2009.
• Innman, D. J., Engineering Vibration. 3rd Ed. Pearson, 2008.
References
[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_power_in_New_York
[2] http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/wind_installed_capacity.asp
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maple_Ridge_Wind_Farm

Subject Science
Due By (Pacific Time) 05/09/13
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