PART I: SHORT RESPONSE QUESTIONS
Directions: Please provide responses to questions below. Please use proper APA citation for any resources that you use. Your responses should be 1 to 2 paragraphs in length for each question.
1. It is often difficult to study social phenomena, because as social creatures we are often closely tied to these phenomena. To address this issue, many sociologists will utilize a technique called attitude of strangeness. What is the attitude of strangeness? Why is it used in field research?
2. When choosing a topic for field research, personal characteristics can limit our access to social groups. What are some of the relevant factors a researcher considers when choosing a field research topic? How does the level of involvement play a role in this decision?
3. Identify ways to ensure high quality field research data. Discuss how internal and external consistency play roles in this assurance of quality.
4. Field research is often conducted on deviant or specialized groups that are not accessible by quantitative research methods. Describe at least 6 steps a field research should take when entering a potentially dangerous field.
5. Why is it important for a field researcher to read the literature before beginning field work? Does this contradict the idea of defocusing?
6. Replication is nearly impossible when conducting field research. How does a field researcher make sure that his or her findings are reliable and valid?
7. At some point in field research, the researcher must end the study. What are some of the concerns when a researcher leaves the field?
8. How is historical-comparative research similar and/or different than field research? Identify the unique features of historical-comparative research.
9. Describe the Annales School, its general orientation, and two of its methodological concepts: mentalities and longue durée.
10. In historical-comparative research, evidence is collected from a variety of sources that lead to different types of evidence. Distinguish a critical indicator from supporting evidence and non-source based knowledge.
11. When using primary sources in historical-comparative research, the quality of the source is always in question. What is the difference between internal and external criticism? What is the purpose of each?
12. Equivalence is a critical issue in all social research. What is equivalence and why is it an important issue in social research? List and describe the four types of equivalence discussed in the text.
13. Many researchers outside the United Sates criticize American social researchers for being “inverted.” What does this criticism mean? What are some of the problems that come with being “inverted?” How do emic and etic concepts enter this discussion?
14. Some researchers will use surveys as a method of choice when comparing different modern cultures. Are surveys a legitimate research method when comparing different cultures? Discuss some of the concerns a researcher must be aware of when using surveys to compare cultures.
15. Discuss the similarities and differences among case-study comparative, cultural-context, cross-national research, and transnational research.
PART II: COURSE RESEARCH PAPER
Directions: write the introductory and concluding paragraphs for the following research body:
Inferior Rating of Women
From earlier days, world has a concept of treating women inferior to men. Women have been working hard than men, but ultimate power is determined to be in the hands of men. Rank lower than men in various fields like economy, education, and employment are some examples of women discrimination. Women are facing health issues due to restless labor in families. In many places rising of discrimination level against women are considered to be cultural values. Characterization of Islamic religion is an example.
Earlier Stages of Women Discrimination
Women were assigned to do household works and not allowed to step out of home. In addition, other feminist writers give historical and temporary participation in resistance movement. Elsewhere, Saba Mahmood challenges Western secular feminism’s reliance on liberal understandings of autonomy in its characterization of Islamic religious women as duped (www.un.org).Because of messages conveyed to the world by many feminist, this situation started to change.
Earlier stage challenges faced by women were described in different notations of churches and theologians. Women cannot carry any public responsibility, Women cannot hold any civil office, Nature produced women for this purpose that they give birth to children, The man is the image of God, The womb is the soil in which the seed grows ,etc. (www.womenpriests.org) . These thoughts even restricted women to handle religious events.
Marriage was considered to be a place that put an end to women independence. Gender differences arise in families after marriage. Women ideas or feelings were not respected in marriage life. Level of responsibility was not much for men as compared to that of women in marriage institutions. But, decision making power was completely in men’s hand.Most of the Asian countries were facing criticisms on child marriages. Ultimately, structural accounts of subject formation need to be integrated more closely with hermeneutic perspectives of the self in order to understand better the complexities of agency in a post-traditional society (books.google.co.in).
But, cultural ethics never helped to overcome such troubles. Roughly 16% of girls in poor countries between the ages of 15 and 19 are married, suggesting that discriminatory beliefs and practices continue to undermine women’s rights globally, according to the latest gender index (www.theguardian.com). High death rates of infants and younger mothers were objected by many feminist and social workers. Severe health problems were faced by women who were under pressure of family life without any external supports.
Employment and Challenges of Women
Level of education to women has reached a better level. About 45% of women start their careers in better educated norm than men. This is a survey results based on 2010 women educational statics. Rationalized attitude to education for women should be inculcated into small countries that are in developing stage. Encouraging approach to females based on their interest of education will give this world new achievement.
The unemployment rate, those without a job but looking for work, was higher for women in 2012 at most levels of educational attainment; however, the differences were smaller for women with higher levels of education (dpeaflcio.org). Discrimination and immoral behavior over females have to be brought down as soon as possible. Medical campaigns and awareness programs must be launched in different undeveloped rural places.
Studies show that employment rate is higher for women when compared to men. But a variation in education level is a problem. Despite high levels of education, and strong representation in professional and technical occupations, women still face a persistent wage and earnings gap. - (dpeaflcio.org). Average income of working women is 25% less than that of men of their age. Hourly wage of women working after age of 30 is said to be 15% lesser than other women of younger age.
Young and educated women contribute high level of work in any organization. Most of the young women are not webbed and don’t have family pressures. Their working place stands first so they are able to give good output. Therefore, young working women are able to achieve successful carrier paths.In 2012, nearly three-quarters of all those employed in the education and health services industry were women (dpeaflcio.org).
Initial decades of America resulted in slow transformation of women power into society. When records were made by more number of women in different fields, it started grabbing many more women into services.Today, both the ideological and the material gains of the women’s movement have come under a sustained attack. This backlash has its roots in the assault on working-class people over the last three decades (www.isreview.org).
In the work place gender equality is to be improvised for women. In most of the industries, management levels are not easily achieved by women. Whereas, men have fast evaluation processes and are appointed instantly into different employment levels. Depending on the nature of job more changes or refreshments have to be done for women.
As per the present scenario, women getting into employments at very younger age will be able to reach management jobs by age of 30s. In some cases of late employments management jobs could be achieved by 40s only. There are 30% chances for women not getting into management category. Data are not available on all individual occupations; however, there is evidence that this gap persists both because of a gap within occupations and because women are disproportionately clustered into lower paying occupations in each group (dpeaflcio.org).Only 2% women will not be affected by family problems. In this category alterations could not be made beyond extend.
Educated women will play a better role than uneducated women. Standard of living and family dependency could be solved effectively by educated women. At the same time educating children and treating illness will be done with standard only by educated women.A recent study found that in 40 percent of American households with children the primary or sole earners was a woman (dpeaflcio.org).
Difficulties faced by women have been changing throughout decades. Women have a lower workforce participation rate than men at every level of education; however, the gap shrinks at higher levels of educational attainment (dpeaflcio.org).Present world in which women are able to convey their thoughts and could achieve success is by steps taken throughout. Effective approaches should be given to rural places in order to eliminate women discrimination completely.
|Due By (Pacific Time)||02/01/2015 09:00 am|
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