1.In The Art of Courtly Love (1180) by Andreas Cappellanus, love is defined as:
... a certain inborn suffering derived from the sight of and excessive meditation upon the beauty of the opposite sex, which causes each one to wish above all things the embraces of the other and by common desire to carry out all of love's precepts in the other's embrace.
How does this conception of love fit in with the medieval culture of courtly love and chivalry? How have are modern-day conceptions of love changed since 1180? In what ways is modern love perhaps not so different?
2.The Prince (1513), Machiavelli writes:
I believe that this depends on whether cruelty is used well or ill... Whence it is to be noted that a prince occupying a new state should see to it that he commit all his acts of cruelty at once so as not to be obliged to return to them every day, and thus, by abstaining from repeating them, he will be able to make men feel secure and can win them over by benefits.
Think about this quote in terms of the historical context Machiavelli comes from.
In what ways was Machiavelli a product of his time? Given the specific political conditions of Machiavelli's Italy, does the above quote contain good advice for a ruler or governmental leader? Machiavelli has been called the founder of modern political science. Can you find traces of his political philosophy in contemporary politics?