The objective of this assignment is to inform your reader about one type of intercultural communication by synthesizing information from multiple sources. Using multiple sources (four or more), you will explain a type of intercultural communication: (a) inter-gender, (b) inter-national, or (c) inter-generational. As with the last essay, this essay is not about your position or opinion, but instead should remain focused on informing the reader about the type of intercultural communication under investigation. It is expected that you will use many source texts (four or more) to explain your type of intercultural communication and that you will synthesize and interpret the information you find in source texts as they relate to each relevant idea you present.
In Writing Project #3, your process should be something like:
· Conduct research using the articles suggested for your type and locate additional sources using TAMUCC library databases. (Points will be deducted for articles NOT found via library databases.)
· Find a clear focus for this project. As soon as possible, write your thesis.
· Identify the most useful details and relevant information related to your research that can be drawn from the source texts.
· Synthesize multiple perspectives from different sources to support your discussion of a type of intercultural communication.
Your essay should include the following parts:
· Introduction: this is where you introduce the type of intercultural communication you will be explaining and why it is important to understand this topic.
· Body: this is where you present ideas related to your topic and use (and synthesize) details from the source texts to support the important ideas. Toward the beginning of your body paragraphs, be sure to provide information consistent with journalistic questions (e.g., who, where, when, why, what, how).
· Conclusion: this is where you round up your essay. Be sure to recapitulate your thesis and return to the importance of these challenges or problems.
Example for this writing:
Inter-gender communication is the study of communication between two main genders, men and women in some aspects of life, especially conversation in daily life. Throughout researches, some scientists stated that there were differences between men and women in their thoughts, feelings, personal characteristics, words, and action that if these factors cannot be sympathized by another gender, it can lead to conflict and argument. As Berit (2012) said men and women seemed to be from two different planets when taking about the way that they understand messages and approach their problems. However, with an objective attitude, Lieberman (2010) agreed that both men and women all grew up in the same planet, but they just interacted with each other in different ways. These problems have been influencing on communication between men and women that require psychologists and linguists to find out the solutions which are important to understand the differences between two genders. According to Joan Meyers-Levy, even though there have the differences in hobbies and receiving styles, both genders are capable of constructive communication (as cited in Arenofsky). Besides that, Judith Tingley provided a creative method in comparison between inter-gender and intercultural communication, men and women can adapt to their communication styles in inter-gender communication is similar to the way they approach and understand foreign languages in intercultural communication, so it can help to reduce the communication barriers between two genders (as cited in Anonymous). With the similar point of view, Booher (1996) believed the awareness of differences between two genders will open more opportunities to fit our styles to other styles and achieve a common goal. Furthermore, Meyers (1999) suggested a new method in changing social model; the author agreed that this method was impacting positively on the way two genders understood each other and adapted to each other’s communication styles. In the texts “How to narrow the gender gap” by Janice Arenofsky, “RELATIONSHIPS Gender talk in the office” by Waschatz Berit, “Communication: Bridging the gender gap” by an anonymous author, “Bridging the gender gap to better communication” by Dianna Booher, “Mars and Venus” by Caryn Meyers, and “Make the most of communication differences” by Simma Lieberman. All these authors consistently agreed that there are differences between men and women communication and it is necessary and essential to fill in the gaps to better communication. The different patterns of interaction are easily distinguished in the workplace, in the way they use their words for conversation, and how they communicate non-verbally.
There are some differences in interaction between men and women in the workplace. In fact, men use the facts and statistics available to them to make decisions, while women use their understanding of others to promote their knowledge. According to Arenofsky (1999), men tend to focus more on practical and essential information of an event, rather than probe emotion like women. With the same idea, Meyers (1999) said men usually used statistic number to provide information or explain the issues. Besides that, women basically open their relationships with their community talking because they want to create a working environment closely, friendly, and efficiently in a good communication, while men think that it is a sign of insecurity and submissiveness (Berit, 2012). Agree with this idea, Lieberman (2010) reported that women built relationships to complete their assignment and looked for commonalities to connect to others, while men focused more on status and dominance when working with the opposite-sex. Moreover, the author also stated women liked sharing their experiences and asking question, while men would provide information rather than ask question; according to the author’s experience, providing information and sharing experiences are the ways they establish their dominance. On the other hand, when communicating with colleagues, women still keep their polite attitudes and respectful words in giving direction, while men usually give their direction with fewer courtesy words. Besides that, in face-to-face environment, meeting room is considered as a place that causes the gender friction in business field (Meyers, 1999). According to Dr. Deborah Tennen, face-to-face environment can highlight men and women behaviors and the way in which these behaviors sometimes conflict (as cited in Meyers). Similarly, Jana Kemp and Steve Kaye also agreed the differences in gender acting as a ticking boom clock, if there was not awareness of fairness, frustrated and disappointed could be happened (as cited in Meyers). Moreover, men tend to focus on solution-oriented in meetings. According to Michael Najarian, men are interested in figuring out the solution immediately, while women present their solution as a suggestion, rather than a direction (As cited in Meyers).
Men and women differ in their interaction in conversational styles and language using also. According to Booher (1996), men’s language tends to be strong, direct, dominant, and even confrontational; therefore, in the argumentation, they do not hesitate to point out what the problem is and give their opinions, while women’s language is considered to be indirect, formal, respectful, and sympathized, so their communicating process usually concentrates on feelings and emotions. Just because they feel comfortable in direct language, men tend to interrupt others, especially women. Dr. Deborah Tennen states that the interruption cannot be intended; however, it might cause the anger and tension because it represents evil, a trampling to dominate (as cited in Meyers). Hence a man will quickly feel impatient if a woman tries to explain an issue while he is searching a problem (Berit, 2012). Connect to the idea in conservational style, Anonymous (1994) agreed that men assumed conversation as a competition, while women is looking for knowledge and wisdom, conversation is a tool to share experience and connect to another person. With the same idea, Arenofsky (1999) also agreed conversation is an opportunity to reflect idea about people and build relationships. Nevertheless, there is reason in conversational style difference between men and women, Meyers (1999) explained men use language to protect for their independent idea, negotiation purpose, and remain status in hierarchy society, while women like to use language to establish relationships and connection. Support to the reason in conversational style, Lieberman (2010) emphasized women talk to solve problem and make a decision, while men keep their issue in mind without sharing to others because talking is a good way to express themselves, establish social status, rather than consultation or receiving an advice.
In non-verbal interaction, the difference in thoughts between men and women cause the difference in behaviors. Berit (2012) stated men tended to go quickly to their goal with decisive confidence. Agree with this point of view, Anonymous (1994) concluded men got to the main purpose or reached to final destination without specific descriptions because they thought they acted like nothing was wrong. It means men are highly competitive, conservative and must be right. In contrast, women usually are in passive position; they use reason to avoid decisive communication because they are afraid of criticism and try to avoid conflict (Meyers, 1999). Furthermore, in non-verbal language, women nod their head as a sign that they are listening, while men just nod their head when they agree with the speaker resulting in confrontation between men and women in misunderstanding (Lieberman, 2010). To answer for all researches above, Dr. Deborah Tennen provided evidences in her experiment, she explained that the differences in behavior between men and women that originated from childhood experience which basically was from their brains when they were born (as cited in Meyers). Dr. Tennen pointed out that boys tend to have activity outdoor, making a big group with a leader, distinguish between winning and losing individual. In contrast, Dr. Tennen highly appreciate “intimacy” in the same-gender communication group of women and support by an example in the childhood game when girls desire to take turn in jump rope and hopscotch, rather than winning or losing individual (as cited in Meyers).
Men and women have different pattern of interaction at workplace, in conversational styles, in brains and behaviors resulting in miscommunication. As Arenofsky (1999) stated in his essay, men and women had experienced the world differently because they were from two different planets. Agree with his idea, Berit (2012) believed that men were from Mars, women were from Venus. Additionally, some scientists claimed that the differences between men and women also originated from the power and status in society; they reported when women had higher position in workplace, their language would be changed (as cited in Booher). On the other hand, Professor Tennen in her research show that most of differences in conversational styles between men and women come from their experience in the childhood; moreover, it has been instilling from childhood to adulthood because the learned behaviors rooted from the real difference in men and women brains (as cited in Meyers). However, Booher (1996) supported that there was not the right or wrong style, just a different style. Similarly, Lieberman (2010) also pointed out some complaints that women made about men and vice versa. In her report, the author said women thought men used informal words to call them, such as girls, gals, ladies instead of women; furthermore, they used expression basing on their favorite topics in business, sports, violence, and sexual connotation and they always decided before asking women for a consultation. In contrast, men think women are easily frustrated in business; moreover, they usually talk about “things” that are too serious and impolite in gender isolation by talking about sexist jokes (Lieberman, 2010). Therefore, it is easy that misinterpretation and conflict can be happened if men or women of each side does not understand and sympathize with the other side.
In an effort to solve the problems in the interactions of men and women, many scientists talk about some ways to change each genders behavior and understanding of the other gender. Arenofsky (1999) emphasized the important of listening actively and having a reaction as a sign of understanding by nodding their head; moreover, speaking and doing directly when people feel something wrong in other people words and delete the prejudice about gender discrimination. Connect to Arenosky’s idea, Anonymous (1994) suggested opening mind in looking objectively at attitude of communication to accept the differences. However, the author also advised people needed to consider the differences without judging. On the other hand, in business, the manager should set a team rules and everyone sign as a commitment, remind people who are the interrupters in the meeting not to interrupt people when they are speaking and encourage passive people, especially women to have opportunity to express themselves (as cited in Meyers). For men, Anonymous (1994) suggested continuing to use precise structure in communication and adding the emotion in the comment when giving out opinion. However, the author warned men not to use words, such as girls, gals, or ladies instead of women. Besides that, Lieberman (2010) advised men to understand and sympathize with women in sharing experience; additionally, discussion is the good way for women to understand men and build relationships. Similarly, the author persuades men to offer a suggestion to help women because that is the way men care for them. For women, Arenofsky (1999) encouraged them with a little more sense of humor in their communication with men, while Anonymous (1994) advised women to strongly communicate with their confidence; furthermore, add sports, money, and business when talking to men, humor can help, and use listening skill as a useful tool in communicating process. However, the author warned women not to use obscured words and avoid passive words. Toward Booher, she suggested using simple and direct language if women want their messages were received. Moreover, author advised women to use more verbs rather than adjectives and adverbs in subjective language to reveal the confidence. In the last tip for women, Lieberman (2010) motived them to go to the main point quickly; nonetheless, the author believes that in women’s psychology, caring and helping men is the way that women do not believe in their ability to handle the problem.
|Due By (Pacific Time)
||04/13/2015 02:00 pm