Project #66805 - TWO HIS 250 words Discussion and FOUR 50 words reply

1.What was the American westward movement?  Who went?  Why did they go?  What were the hardships they encountered?  Would you have gone?  Why/why not?(250 words and work cited in MLA STYLE)

 

 

2What do you view as the most important social and educational reforms during this period?  How successful were they?(250 words and work cited in MLA STYLE)

 

 

Reply(50 words each)

1.The American westward movement, was just that, the moving west of the American people. The rise of Andrew Jackson, the first president from beyond the Appalachian Mountains, exemplified the inexorable westward march of the American people (Kennedy). In 1850, more than half of Americans were under 30 years of age. They had a lot of energy and were constantly moving west. On this move, people realized how beautiful nature really was. So, George Catlin proposed the idea of a national park to preserve wildlife. His idea later bore fruit with the creation of the world's first national park system, beginning with Yellowstone Park in 1872 (Kennedy).

As Americans moved west, they multiplied at a high rate. This along with the immigration led America to be the fourth populous nation at the time. By 1860, the original thirteen states had more than doubled in number: thirty-three stars graced the American flag (Kennedy). Over rapid urbanization intensified problems of smelly slums, horrible street lighting, unpurified water, foul sewage, a whole bunch of rats, and improper garbage disposal. It wasn't until 1823 when Boston created a sewage system and 1842 when New York started to pump in fresh water from underground. The city thus unknowingly eliminated many of the breeding places of disease-carrying mosquitoes (Kennedy).

I think I would have gone. I love to travel and this seems like it would have been the perfect time to do so. Its kind of intimidating moving to a new place and not knowing anyone. But its not hard to make new friends and start a new life. I'm also not a fan of crowded places and the east coast was growing in size quickly due to immigration.

 

 

2.The American Westward movement was when settlers in the East of the United States moved west in order to obtain more resources and discover new cultures. They also intended to acquire land to build settlement s and communities. On the journey westward, they discovered beautiful nature and wildlife which prompted George Catlin to introduce the first national park, which was the Yellowstone Park in 1872.

Some hardships include that they would wear out the farmland from over farming as a result of being too greedy. The population was increasing rapidly which created multiple problems for the people moving westward, including poor sewage systems, poor lighting and poor housing.

I would probably have taken the trip westward because I love to seek new adventures and discover and learn new cultures. Furthermore, the east was becoming extremely overcrowded due to the abundance of immigrants.

 

3.The most important social and educational reform during this time period was Free Schools for a Free People. The book explains how there were very few schools during this time period and most of them would only remain open for a few months and then close the rest of the year. Those individuals to become teachers were often men who were not married and were not very educated themselves. “School teachers, most of them men in this era, were often ill trained, ill tempered, and ill paid” (Kennedy, Cohen & Piehl, 2012, 226). Reality, is being a teacher was not a job that was very well respected. People during this era were yet to take education seriously. Thankfully, Horace Mann believed in education and when he became secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education he began to demand a better education system. The text explains “he campaigned effectively for more and better school houses, longer, school terms, higher pay for teachers and an expanded curriculum” (Kennedy, Cohen & Piehl, 2012, 226).

Many began to realize education was important as Thomas Jefferson declared “A civilized nation that was both ignorant and free, never was and never will be” (Kennedy, Cohen & Piehl, 2012, 201). Over a million white adults could not read and all those who resided in the country such as slaves, and minorities could also not read. America was in major need of an educational reform. Changes began to occur slowly. School began to have a better curriculum but were very expensive. Women were not allowed to go to school because many believed “a woman’s place was believed to be in the home, and training in needlecraft seems more important than training in algebra” (Kennedy, Cohen & Piehl, 2012, 227). Yet, even in the mist of great stereotypes education prevailed.

Women went from not being able to attend school to having their own centers for education. Schools went from being expensive to being free. And minorities such as slaves were able to also partake in education. The education reform was very successful because today we reap the harvest of the reform. Today we can all go to college and obtain an education regardless of our economical bracket or race. Education gives us power. Without the reform, many of us women or minorities would have still lived under stereotypes that believe only those who are wealthy or white can account to something in life.

 

4.I believe that one of the most important social and educational reforms that happen between the years of 1790-1860 was the “Free Schools for a Free People”. During this time period there were very few “tax-supported primary schools, so many poor people were uneducated” (Kennedy). Many rich people began to realize that these undereducated poor would eventually become voters just like Thomas Jefferson once quoted that, “never was and never will, a civilized nation that was both ignorant and free” (Kennedy). When people realized that education was important taxes for public schools were started so that public education was available for all.

In addition, the number of schools had increased, but many teachers were poorly educated themselves and were no good to the students that they were teaching and they also had poor wages. Thankfully these individuals all believe that education was important and they all stood for what they thought was a benefit for the American people. The first influential person was Horace Mann. He was a secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education. He campaigned effectively for more and better “schoolhouses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, expanded curriculum and education for teachers” (Kennedy).  Another individual that made educational advances during the reform was Noah Webster. He created better textbooks that promoted patriotism, and also made the most famous dictionary. The Webster dictionary “helped standardize the American language” (Kennedy). Lastly, another individual that was very influential during this time period was William H. McGuffey. Mr. McGuffey created “grade-school” readers that taught morality, patriotism, and idealism.

Another very important social and educational reforms that happen between the years of 1790-1860 was “Women’s Rights”. In the beginning of the nineteenth century women, “were expected to take care of the home only, could not vote, could be legally beaten by her overlord, and when she was married she could not retain title to her property, it passed to her husband” (Kennedy). Women were looked down upon during this time which was totally wrong. Thankfully, women have a lot more freedom in today’s society. Although, during the women’s revolt the American women were treated much better than those in Europe. Many decades later, women were more respected as the "moral backbone" of society (Kennedy). In 1848, The Women's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls, NY launched the modern women's rights movement. They believe that “all men and women were created equal” (Kennedy). The women's rights movement was mothered by these extraordinary individuals like: Lucretia Mott: a sprightly Quaker, Elizabeth Cady Stanton: mother of 7, insisting on leaving "obey" out of her marriage ceremony, advocated suffrage for women, Susan B. Anthony: military lecturer for women’s rights, and Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell: the first female graduate of medical college.

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