Project #6979 - Statistic

 
Question 1 of 31
1.0 Points
A researcher wishes to study the role of viewing violent cartoons on children's behavior. She wants to test the theory that aggression is influenced by frustration (the "frustration-aggression" theory), including the aggression seen in children after viewing the violent behavior of others. 
She has each child enter a waiting room which is either filled with toys that the child is told he or she may NOT play with, or a waiting room with no toys. After the child spends 15 minutes in the waiting room, he or she views either a cartoon which includes violent actions (e.g. a "Roadrunner" cartoon) or a nonviolent cartoon (e.g. "Rugrats"). The child is then allowed to play in another room which has many toys; a research assistant counts the number of violent actions the child displays while playing with the toys for 15 minutes. 
Here is a summary table of the data: 
                              Type of Cartoon
 Prior State           Nonviolent               Violent      
Not Frustrated           2.17                       5.62           
Frustrated                  3.25                    2.68 

What sort of design is this?
A. 1x2  
B. 3x2  
C. 2x2  
D. 2x2x3  
 
Question 2 of 31
1.0 Points
A researcher wishes to study the role of viewing violent cartoons on children's behavior. She wants to test the theory that aggression is influenced by frustration (the "frustration-aggression" theory), including the aggression seen in children after viewing the violent behavior of others. 
She has each child enter a waiting room which is either filled with toys that the child is told he or she may NOT play with, or a waiting room with no toys. After the child spends 15 minutes in the waiting room, he or she views either a cartoon which includes violent actions (e.g. a "Roadrunner" cartoon) or a nonviolent cartoon (e.g. "Rugrats"). The child is then allowed to play in another room which has many toys; a research assistant counts the number of violent actions the child displays while playing with the toys for 15 minutes. 
Here is a summary table of the data: 
                              Cartoon Type 
                              Nonviolent      Violent 
Prior State 
Not Frustrated        2.17                  5.62      
Frustrated                3.25                2.68 


Although the final conclusions would be based on statistical significance tests, if we assume that any difference of 1 or more indicates statistical significance, these results indicate a(n)
A. main effect of cartoon type  
B. main effect of prior state  
C. main effect of both variables  
D. no main effect  
Question 3 of 31
1.0 Points
In the research described in the prior question, does there appear to be an interaction?
A. yes  
B. no  
Question 4 of 31
0.5 Points
  High Self-Esteem Low Self-Esteem
Positive Feedback 6, 9, 9, 7, 9, 8, 7, 7, 9, 8  2, 3, 4, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 2
Negative Feedback 3, 2, 3, 4, 2, 2, 3, 2, 3, 2 7, 8, 7, 6, 9, 8, 7, 9, 7, 7
For the following questions, consider the data above: 20 High self-esteem and 20 Low Self-esteem participants were randomly assigned to either receive positive or negative feedback from a confederate in a study. The participants were then asked if they liked the confederate (9-point scale with higher numbers indicating more liking). What is the Predictor Variable?
A. likability  
B. self-esteem  
C. feedback  
0.5 Points
What is the independent (manipulated) variable?
A. likability  
B. self-esteem  
C. feedback  
D. none of the above  
Question 6 of 31
0.5 Points
What is the dependent variable?
A. likability  
B. self-esteem  
C. feedback  
D. all of the above  
Question 7 of 31
0.5 Points
Which of the variables can the researchers potentially make causal statements about?
A. likability  
B. self-esteem  
C. feedback  
D. none ofthe above  
Question 8 of 31
0.5 Points
What sort of design is this?
A. between groups (independent groups) posttest only  
B. within participants (repeated measures)  
C. within participnats (concurrent measures)  
D. between groups (independent groups) pretest-posttest  
Question 9 of 31
0.5 Points
The sample size was  . 
 
Question 10 of 31
2.0 Points
Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000) 

Calculate the means for each group. Report to 1 decimal place: 

High Self-Esteem, Positive  
High Self-Esteem, Negative  
Low Self-Esteem, Positive  
Low Self-Esteem, Negative  

Question 11 of 31
2.0 Points
Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000) 

Collapse the data and calculate the overall mean for each group. Report to two decimal places. 

High Self-Esteem  
Low Self-Esteem  

Positive Feedback  
Negative Feedback  

Question 12 of 31
2.0 Points
There is no main effect of self-esteem. 

Write a single sentence that interprets this finding. 

Here are some sample sentences that you may use as templates Choose the one that applies to this finding. Be sure to name the variables/levels in plain language. Be sure to include the means. 
"_Group 1_ (M=x) and _group 2_ (M=x) performed the same on the _outcome variable_." 
"_Group 1's_ (M=x) _score on outcome variable_ was significantly higher than _group 2's_ (M=x)."


Question 13 of 31
2.0 Points
There is no main effect of feedback. 

Write a single sentence that interprets this finding. 

Here are some sample sentences that you may use as templates. Choose the one that applies to this finding. Be sure to name the variables/levels in plain language. Be sure to include the means. 
"_Group 1_ (M=x) and _group 2_ (M=x) performed the same on the _outcome variable_." 
"_Group 1's_ (M=x) _score on outcome variable_ was significantly higher than _group 2's_ (M=x)." 




 

Question 14 of 31
2.0 Points
There is a significant interaction between the two factors. 

Write a few sentences that interpret this finding. 

You may use this example as a template. Be sure to name the variables/levels in plain language. Be sure to include the means. 

"Participants with _Level A1_ who experienced _Level B1_ (M=x) had _higher_ _outcome variable_ than those with _Level A1_ who experienced _Level B2_ (M=x). However, participants with _Level A2_ who experienced _Level B1_ (M=x) had _lower_ _outcome variable_ than those with _Level A2_ who experienced _Level B2_ (M=x). "




 
Question 15 of 31
1.0 Points
What would you have found if you had not included self-esteem as a factor in this study and had just compared positive to negative feedback?




 
Question 16 of 31
2.0 Points
Suppose a researcher comes up with a new drug that she thinks cures cancer. She assigns some patients to receive a placebo, and others to receive the new drug. The null hypothesis is that the drug will have no effect. 

a. In this case, what would be the Type I error? 
b. In this case, what would be the Type II error? 
c. What would be a “hit”? 
d. What would be a “true negative"? 
e. In this scenario, explain the consequences of a Type I error.  How would this error be detected?





 
 
Question 17 of 31
1.0 Points
When it comes to the ___, we are only concerned about the absolute value. The positive / negative sign doesn't matter. However, when considering the ____, the sign is a vital piece of information about the nature of the relationship.
A. t-test; correlation coefficient (r)  
B. correlation coefficient (r); t-test  
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Part 2 of 2 - Examples
 
Question 18 of 31
0.5 Points
A. A researcher tested 23 older adults and 23 younger adults on their ability to remember a list of words. 

This is a ____ design.
A. between-subjects  
B. within-subjects  
C. factorial  
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Question 19 of 31
0.5 Points
Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000) 

B. A researcher tested 23 older adults and 23 younger adults on their ability to remember a list of words. 

What are the degrees of freedom?  
Question 20 of 31
0.5 Points
C. A researcher tested 23 older adults and 23 younger adults on their ability to remember a list of words. 

The research hypothesis is that the younger adults will perform better on this task than the older adults. 

This hypothesis is
A. directional / one-sided  
B. non-directional / two-sided  
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Question 21 of 31
2.0 Points
D. A researcher tested 23 older adults and 23 younger adults on their ability to remember a list of words. 

Will the researcher be able to determine causation (Yes/No)? Explain your answer in one sentence.




 
Question 22 of 31
1.0 Points
E. Use the tables of critical values provided in the Resources (also attached here) 

Suppose the researcher found that the younger adults remembered a mean of 36 words (sd=1.2) and the older adults remembered a mean of 30 words (sd=2.7). 

Suppose the calculated t is 2.613 

What is the most precise level of significance for this result?
    Critical Values of t.pdf     319 KB
 
A. p<.1
B. p<.05
C. p<.025
D. p<.02
E. p<.01
F. p<.005
G. p>.05

 

 

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Question 23 of 31
0.5 Points
E1. For the question above, is the result statistically significant?
A. yes, the difference is statistically significant  
B. No, the difference is not statistically significant.  
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Question 24 of 31
2.0 Points
E2. Write the interpretation. 
Be sure to include a statement about the significance in terms of the null hypothesis, the names of both variables, the means for both levels, the t-statistic written out in APA format and plainly state the interpretation of any difference.




 
 
Question 25 of 31
1.0 Points
F. Once again, the researchers predicted that the younger adults would remember more words than the young adults. Suppose the researcher found that the younger adults remembered a mean of 32 words (sd=1.2) and the older adults remembered a mean of 30 (sd=2.7) words. 

Suppose the calculated t is 1.655 

What is the most precise level of significance for this result?
A. p<.1  
B. p<.05  
C. p<.025  
D. p<.2  
E. p<.01  
F. p<.005  
G. p>.05  
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Question 26 of 31
0.5 Points
F1. For the question above, is the result statistically significant?
A. Yes, the difference is statistically significant.  
B. No, the difference is not statistically significant.  
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Question 27 of 31
2.0 Points
F2. Write the interpretation. 
Be sure to include a statement about the significance in terms of the null hypothesis, the names of both variables, the means for both levels, the t-statistic written out in APA format and plainly state the interpretation of any difference.



 
 
Question 28 of 31
1.0 Points
G. Suppose the researcher conducted a further study, but this time measured age continuously and calculated a correlation between age and memory performance. In this new study, the researcher recruited a total of 55 participants 

The research hypothesis is that the younger adults will perform better on this task than the older adults. 

For this example, what are the degrees of freedom?  
Question 29 of 31
1.0 Points
G1. Suppose the researcher calculated a correlation of r = -0.24 between age and memory performance.  Use the tables of critical values provided in the resources (also attached here). 

What is the most precise level of significance for this result?
    Critical Values of r.pdf     379 KB
A. p<.1  
B. p<.05  
C. p<.025  
D. p<.01  
E. p<.005  
F. p>.05  
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Question 30 of 31
0.5 Points
G2. Did the researchers find a significant positive or negative relationship? Or was there no significant relationship?
A. positive, significant  
B. negative, significant  
C. zero, not significant  
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Question 31 of 31
2.0 Points
G3. Write the interpretation. 
Be sure to include a statement about the significance in terms of the null hypothesis, the names of both variables, the direction of the correlation, the statistic written out in APA format and plainly state the interpretation. 




 

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