Project #77054 - Managerial Communication

Managerial Communications MBA501

Writing Techniques – Unit Four:  Parallel Structure

Learning Objective:  Examine strategies for developing effective communication

 

Parallel Structure Mini Lecture and Worksheet (below)

Parallel structure means using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance. This can happen at the word, phrase, or clause level. The usual way to join parallel structures is with the use of coordinating conjunctions such as "and" or "or."

Words and Phrases

With the -ing form (gerund) of words:

Parallel: Mary likes hiking, swimming, and bicycling.

With infinitive phrases:

Parallel: Mary likes to hike, to swim, and to ride a bicycle.
OR
Mary likes to hike, swim, and ride a bicycle.

(Note: You can use "to" before all the verbs in a sentence or only before the first one.)

Do not mix forms.

Example 1

 

Not Parallel:

Mary likes hiking, swimming, and to ride a bicycle.

 

Parallel:
Mary likes hiking, swimming, and riding a bicycle.

Example 2

 

Not Parallel:
The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and in a detailed manner.

 

Parallel:
The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and thoroughly.

Example 3

 

Not Parallel:
The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study for the exam, completed his lab problems in a careless manner, and his motivation was low.

 

Parallel:
The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study for the exam, completed his lab problems in a careless manner, and lacked motivation.

Clauses

A parallel structure that begins with clauses must keep on with clauses. Changing to another pattern or changing the voice of the verb (from active to passive or vice versa) will break the parallelism.

Example 1

 

Not Parallel:
The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and to do some warm-up exercises before the game.

Parallel:
The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises before the game.

— or —

Parallel:
The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, not eat too much, and do some warm-up exercises before the game.

 

Example 2

 

Not Parallel:
The salesman expected that he would present his product at the meeting, that there would be time for him to show his slide presentation, and that questions would be asked by prospective buyers. (passive)

 

Parallel:
The salesman expected that he would present his product at the meeting, that there would be time for him to show his slide presentation, and that prospective buyers would ask him questions.

Lists After a Colon

Be sure to keep all the elements in a list in the same form.

Example 1

 

Not Parallel:
The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and looking up irregular verbs.

 

Parallel:
The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and irregular verbs.

 

 

Revising For Parallel Structure Worksheet for Unit Four

Each of the following sentences starts well but then goes off the track.  Rewrite the italicized part to make it parallel with the rest of the sentence.  Change or add things as necessary.

  1. We were dirty, hungry, and without a penny.
  1. My roommate liked to repair things around the house and his own cooking.
  1. During the day, we went on long hikes, rowed around the lake, or just leisure time.
  1. She returned to pay the rent and because she had left some of her things.
  1. Two things that I found hard to learn as a freshman were to get enough sleep and trimming expenses.
  1. He asked me about my courses and where I was planning to be next year.
  1. The doctor said that I should rest and not to get excited or upset.
  1. Hitler’s followers considered other nations to be racially inferior and were fit only for slave labor.
  1. The best way to combat juvenile delinquency is not to set up more social agencies but by restoring old-fashioned discipline in the home.
  1. The book told how to build a gun cabinet, how to build a bookcase, and all types of furniture that you can make.
  1. When I was a member of the basketball team, everyone met me with a happy smile, made lively conversation, and I was invited to many parties.
  1. Fires, caused by unheeding persons, have destroyed valuable forests and thereby decreasing our lumber resources.
  1. In basketball, there is never a dull moment, any team can win, and a fine display of teamwork.
  1. My parents liked peace and quiet and to relax in the evening at home.
  1. Esther is a helpful person and who makes friends easily.
  1. Yosemite is a park with spectacular scenery and which has half-tame bears.
  1. My friends were always going off to jog in the park or a game of tennis.
  1. The manager asked me to file an application and would I leave my number.
  1. We went to rallies to protest against pesticides, oppose nuclear power, or other current causes.
  1. My roommate was a smart dresser, a good student, and really knew how to talk.

Subject Business
Due By (Pacific Time) 07/24/2015 12:00 am
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