Introduction to Ethics 2306 Dr. Sally Parker-Ryan Summer Term Online Summer 2015
INSTRUCTIONS: The following exam is comprised of 36 short answer questions. For short answers, write 1-3 sentences UNLESS IT IS SPECIFIED TO BE A TRUE/FALSE QUESTION.
Please answerALL questions.
Read the questions carefully before answering.
Write your exam on a WORD document and upload it via the link I have posted on Eagle Online. This puts your answers through the Turnitin program, which detects any form of copying or plagiarism. So PLEASE do not copy from other students’ work, or from the internet, because it will be detected, and you will be FAILED.
The exam will be graded out of 100 points. Your score will count for 30 % of your final grade.
Please be sure to put YOUR NAME on the document you upload, and please NUMBER your answers according to the questions here. EXAM IS DUE Friday July 31 AT MIDNIGHT. NO LATE EXAMS WILL BE ACCEPTED – I will need to upload your grades quickly so there will be no time for late exams! Contact me if you have ANY problems.
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS: write 1-3 sentences OR answer true or false or yes or no. (Each question is worth 2 points, except question 16 is worth 9 points and questions 30 – 36 are worth 5 points each.)
Moral Relativism is a meta-ethical theory. True or False?
What is the key method in philosophy?
Is an ethical theory normative or descriptive?
What is a Meta-ethical view (as opposed to an ethical view)?
What are the two Meta-ethical views we examined?
Write a sentence that captures the Euthyphro Dilemma.
Which ‘side’ of the Dilemma do you agree with if you are an Ethical Relativist?
If you are an Ethical Realist, you believe that Right and Wrong are objective and independent of anyone’s say-so. True or False?
What is the difference between a ‘teleological’ ethical theory and a ‘deontological’ ethical theory?
For the Egoist, it is wrong to do anything that will not serve one’s own interests. True or False?
Is Glaucon right that we only behave morally well because we are afraid of punishment?
Is Utilitarianism a teleological or deontological theory?
Describe the Utilitarian ‘Principle of Utility’.
Aristotle believes that virtue is something that is learned, not something one is either born with or without. True or false?
Describe the difference between the Categorical Imperative and the Hypothetical Imperative.
This question is worth 9 points. Here is an ethical ‘thought experiment’, originally invented by philosopher Philippa Foot. It has 2 versions: version A and version B. Read both and answer briefly for both what a Kantian would do, what a Utilitarian would do, and what YOU would do:
VERSION A: You see that a runway train is hurtling down a track, and that it is going to hit a group of 5 people standing in its path and will certainly kill them all. However, you happen to be standing next to a switch that can divert the train down another track where only a single person is standing. There is no way to alert the people on the track as
they are too far away, and there is no time to call for help – you must act immediately. Answer all of the following: a) What would Kant do? b) What would a Utilitarian do? c) What would you do?
VERSION B: Now suppose that there is no switch, but that you are instead standing on a bridge over the railway track next to a very large man, and you are sure that if you pushed him onto the track his bulk (but not yours) would be sufficient to stop the train before it hit the group of people. There is no way to alert the people on the track as they are too far away, and there is no time to call for help – you must act immediately. What do you think now? Should one kill the large man? Answer all of the following: d) What would Kant do? e) What would a Utilitarian do? f) What would you do?
Describe what is different about the cases above if you would act differently in Version A and Version B.
If you are a Virtue ethicist, you should practice virtuous acts because it will bring you money and power. True or False?
How does Aristotle suggest one work out what the right thing to do is in any given situation?
For Kant, it is rational to be immoral. True or false?
May one treat others as means to ends, according to Kant?
May one treat others as means to ends for the Utilitarian?
‘Eudaimonia’, for Aristotle, is a life full of only pleasure and doing as one pleases. True or false?
For Aristotle, we must aim our behavior at the ‘mean’ or middle. What does that involve?
Why would working on having a virtuous character make you happier than winning the
lottery, according to Aristotle?
Why does Kant think that to be immoral is to be irrational?
Why does Kant think that we would follow self-imposed rules more consistently than we would follow rules imposed on us from external authorities?
Kant believes that morality is too important to trust to reason – we should base our behavior on our emotions. True or False?
If you are a Moral Relativist, can you condemn the practices of other cultures?
The following questions are worth 5 points each – more than 3 sentences may be required, but
not more than a paragraph:
In your opinion, should we base our morality on reason or on emotion? Explain and support your view, briefly, in terms of the ethical theories you have learned about in this course.
Do Right and Wrong exist independently of human ideas, practices, cultures and beliefs?
Read the following case study. Answer the following question, referring back to what you have learned about ethical theory in this course.
Does society have a moral responsibility to do anything about people like Joe? Why or why not?
Consider the following scenario: Ava, who is very poor, is on her way to pay her rent when she drops her wallet along the way without noticing it. Bert is walking along some time later, and finds Ava’s wallet. Her contact information is printed clearly inside. The wallet contains a large sum of cash: Ava’s rent for one month. Bert works for a charity that helps homeless people. He knows that he could put 10 homeless people in a shelter for one month with Ava’s cash. What he does not know is that if Ava does not pay her rent, she, too will become homeless.
33. Give a Kantian analysis of what Bert should do here.
34. Give a Utilitarian analysis of what Bert should do.
35. Describe Kant’s ‘Kingdom of Ends’.
36. Do you believe we humans have made moral progress over time?
|Due By (Pacific Time)||07/31/2015 07:19 am|
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