Project #78902 - HOmework

Question 1

  1. For a sample of test scores that ranges from 42% to 93%, the median and mode are both 88%; however, the mean is 72%. What might account for the lower mean?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 2

  1. In a distribution that is skewed by a few extreme outliers, what would be the best choice for a measure of central tendency?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 3

  1. In a physical geography course, the average score on the first exam across all sections of the course was 77.63%. Because all students were included in the calculation, the mean is assumed to be based on population data. The test average may be considered to be a:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 4

  1. The mean is the number that perfectly balances the:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 5

  1. This table represents the fictional scores of a set of dieters who answered the question “how many times in a week would you estimate you hide your eating behavior (e.g., sneak food, eat in private, under-report consumption).” 

    Table: Hidden Eating Behaviors
    X
    Rating
    6
    9
    5
    2
    4
    5
    3
    7
    2
    3
    1
    21
     
    Reference: Table 5

    (Table: Hidden Eating Behaviors) The median reported acts of hiding eating is:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 6

  1. Sixteen college freshmen were asked to record the number of alcoholic drinks that they typically consume in a week. Here are their data: 2, 4, 6, 0, 1, 10, 9, 0, 6, 3, 6, 8, 5, 4, 6, 2. What is the median number of alcoholic drinks consumed per week?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 7

  1. This table represents the fictional ages of a set of participants who participated in a research study.

    Table: Age
    X
    Age
    9
    33
    8
    41
    7
    40
    6
    38
    5
    42
    4
    39
    3
    16
    2
    44
    1
    33
     
    Reference: Table 3

    (Table: Age) The standard deviation in this data set is:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 8

  1. The following source table depicts partial results of a fictional study investigating whether students' stress levels vary as a function of the type of residence they inhabit (house, apartment, dorm room) and the noise volume to which they are subjected (soft, medium, loud). Six participants were recruited for each cell of the study.

    Table: Residence and Noise 
    Source
    SS
    df
    MS
    F
    Residence
    7.64
    2
       
    Noise  
    2
    1.11
     
    Residence × Noise        
    Within
    14.36
     
    0.319
     
    Total
    27.84
         
     
    Reference: Table 4

    (Table: Residence and Noise) Using the source table and information provided, the critical cutoff for both main effects is ___________ while the critical cutoff for the interaction is _____________.
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 9

  1. The following source table depicts partial results of a fictional study investigating whether students' stress levels vary as a function of the type of residence they inhabit (house, apartment, dorm room) and the noise volume to which they are subjected (soft, medium, loud). Six participants were recruited for each cell of the study.

    Table: Residence and Noise 
    Source
    SS
    df
    MS
    F
    Residence
    7.64
    2
       
    Noise  
    2
    1.11
     
    Residence × Noise        
    Within
    14.36
     
    0.319
     
    Total
    27.84
         
     
    Reference: Table 4

    (Table: Residence and Noise) Using the source table and information provided, calculate the F statistic for the main effect of residence type.
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 10

  1. The following figure reflects the results of a study by Forys and Dahlquist (2007) investigating the effects of coping style and cognitive strategy on dealing with pain. Participants were first classified as having a monitoring or avoiding coping style. They were then randomly assigned to one of two cognitive strategy conditions, distraction or sensation monitoring. Participants were next instructed to use the cognitive strategy while submerging their hand in ice water. The researchers measured pain tolerance as the number of seconds participants were able to keep their hand in the ice water.

    Figure: Strategies for Dealing with Pain


    Reference: Figure 2

    (Figure: Strategies for Dealing with Pain) The figure reflects a main effect of cognitive strategy. Which statement best describes the main effect?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 11

  1. The following source table depicts partial results of a fictional study investigating whether students' stress levels vary as a function of the type of residence they inhabit (house, apartment, dorm room) and the noise volume to which they are subjected (soft, medium, loud). Six participants were recruited for each cell of the study.

    Table: Residence and Noise 
    Source
    SS
    df
    MS
    F
    Residence
    7.64
    2
       
    Noise  
    2
    1.11
     
    Residence × Noise        
    Within
    14.36
     
    0.319
     
    Total
    27.84
         
     
    Reference: Table 4

    (Table: Residence and Noise) Using the source table and information provided, calculate the degrees of freedom for the interaction.
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 12

  1. The following figure reflects the results of a study by Forys and Dahlquist (2007) investigating the effects of coping style and cognitive strategy on dealing with pain. Participants were first classified as having a monitoring or avoiding coping style. They were then randomly assigned to one of two cognitive strategy conditions, distraction or sensation monitoring. Participants were next instructed to use the cognitive strategy while submerging their hand in ice water. The researchers measured pain tolerance as the number of seconds participants were able to keep their hand in the ice water.

    Figure: Strategies for Dealing with Pain


    Reference: Figure 2

    (Figure: Strategies for Dealing with Pain) The figure reflects a main effect of coping style. Which statement best describes the main effect?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 13

  1. A researcher performs a 3 x 5 ANOVA examining how preferences for engagement with friends varied as a function of age (20, 30, or 40 year olds) and social media tools (Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Google+, Instagram) with 26 participants in each cell of the study design. What is the degrees of freedom for the variable age?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 14

  1. The following source table depicts partial results of a fictional study investigating whether students' stress levels vary as a function of the type of residence they inhabit (house, apartment, dorm room) and the noise volume to which they are subjected (soft, medium, loud). Six participants were recruited for each cell of the study.

    Table: Residence and Noise 
    Source
    SS
    df
    MS
    F
    Residence
    7.64
    2
       
    Noise  
    2
    1.11
     
    Residence × Noise        
    Within
    14.36
     
    0.319
     
    Total
    27.84
         
     
    Reference: Table 4

    (Table: Residence and Noise) Using the source table and information provided, calculate the total degrees of freedom.
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 15

  1. A researcher performs a 3 x 5 ANOVA examining how preferences for engagement with friends varied as a function of age (20, 30, or 40 year olds) and social media tools (Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Google+, Instagram) with 26 participants in each cell of the study design. Using alpha of 0.05 and the closest values on the table in our textbook, what is the critical cutoff for the test of age?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 16

  1. A type of scatterplot that indicates only the range of the actual data on each axis is a:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 17

  1. Figure: Class Rank

    Reference: Table 1

    (Figure: Class Rank) From this graph, we know with certainty that a person with a class rank of 60 in the freshman year would have a class rank of 60 in his or her senior year. This statement is an example of a(n):
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 18

  1. If you were graphing one scale independent variable and one scale dependent variable, you would use a:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 19

  1. If we have one nominal independent variable and one scale dependent variable, what type of graph should we use?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 20

  1. Data about text messaging shows that people 15–25 years old text at very high rates, while people 45–55 years old text less frequently. If there is no data about people in the range of 26–44 years old, why is it not safe to just infer that their rates will be between the other two?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 21

  1. Graphs, also called figures in APA style, that follow standards of appropriate design help to:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 22

  1. According to the text, pie charts are:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 23

  1. When Cohen's d is large (based on Cohen's conventions), the amount of overlap between the two distributions being compared is ________%.
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 24

  1. If a researcher performs a meta-analysis and finds that the mean = 0.11, and that the 95% confidence interval around this mean is (–0.04, 0.26), what could the researcher conclude?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 25

  1. If you are correct about the expected direction of an effect, then using a one-tailed hypothesis test instead of a two-tailed hypothesis test:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 26

  1. An overlap between two distributions of approximately 39% is most likely to result in a(n) ________ effect size.
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 27

  1. According to Cohen's convention, a value of ________ is a large effect size.
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 28

  1. We calculate a statistical power and find that it is 0.61. This means that if the null hypothesis is ________, we have a ________% chance of rejecting the null hypothesis.
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 29

  1. Hypothesis testing alone may oversimplify results. All but one of the following is a way to enhance our analysis:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 30

  1. Statistical convention for the minimal acceptable power is:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 31

  1. Which of the following formulas for calculating the subjects sum of squares for a within-groups ANOVA is correct?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 32

  1. Which F statistic represents a new calculation as part of the within-groups ANOVA?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 33

  1. Within-groups degrees of freedom is calculated by:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 34

  1. The one-way within-groups design can be viewed as an extension of what other research design because of its ability to analyze data from more groups?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 35

  1. The ________ sum of squares is unique to the within-subjects design.
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 36

  1. In addition to hypothesis testing, post-hoc tests are required as a way to assess:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 37

  1. Because of their benefits in reducing variability, what types of designs are always preferred?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 38

  1. The Bonferroni, Scheffé, and Tukey are all examples of:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 39

  1. Imagine that you've just read the results of a study that finds a positive correlation between gum chewing and life expectancy. Which of the following statements would be a statistically appropriate response to the results of the study?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 40

  1. The Pearson correlation coefficient is a statistic that:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 41

  1. When the data in a scatterplot form an overall pattern through which it would make sense to draw a straight line, the relationship is said to be:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 42

  1. The model of possible causal explanations for a correlation is called the:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 43

  1. Which of the following values of the correlation coefficient indicates the weakest relationship between two variables?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 44

  1. A perfect linear relationship will yield a Pearson's r value of:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 45

  1. Before calculating the correlation coefficient, it is advisable to create a ________ as a way of displaying the association between the two variables.
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 46

  1. Psychometricians are concerned with:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 47

  1. The subscript M included in the symbols, µM and σM, indicates that
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 48

  1. Imagine that we know the following information for populations living in cities and rural areas. In big cities, average commutes are 40 minutes with a standard deviation of 15 minutes. In rural areas, the average commute is 25 minutes with a standard deviation of 6 minutes. 
    Imagine Kris from the city travels 10 minutes to get to work and Rich from the country travels 34 minutes. Which commute is more unusual?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 49

  1. The normal curve is:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 50

  1. The pattern of data that is symmetric around a midpoint and fairly accurately predicts reality is called a:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 51

  1. The z-score distribution ________ has a mean of ________.
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 52

  1. The distribution of means based on samples of size 45, pulled from a population distribution with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, would have a standard error of:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 53

  1. When creating a distribution of means, it is important that whatever scores are sampled to compute the means are:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 54

  1. What research technique is crucial to drawing the conclusion that the independent variable caused the change in the dependent variable?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 55

  1. When you read your college textbooks, you may sometimes find errors in them. If you track the number of errors based on the edition of the textbook, you might find that first editions have more errors than third, fifth, and tenth editions. What kind of variable is the number of errors found?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 56

  1. A weight-management researcher was interested in whether the size of breakfast could deter overall food consumption throughout the rest of the day. He creates two breakfast groups, a 350-calorie breakfast and a 750-calorie breakfast, assigns six participants to each group and tracks their total calories eaten in one day. Because of the detailed attention needed to accurately interview participants about their eating, he works with the high-calorie group and has his assistant interview the low-calorie group. What is the dependent variable in this study?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 57

  1. The outcome variable that we expect to change with changes in the independent variable is the ________ variable.
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 58

  1. Wendy is a Weight Watchers group leader. To get a better idea of how to help those she will be working with to achieve their weight-loss goals, she wishes to know the average weight-loss goal of the individuals in her group. What kind of statistic should Wendy use?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 59

  1. A researcher wanted to determine whether eating Pop-Tarts for breakfast increased the aggression of second graders during their morning play period. After feeding a group of 20 students Pop-Tarts for breakfast she observed that, on average, the students committed 4.5 aggressive behaviors during their morning play period. In this example, the sample is:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 60

  1. A researcher wanted to determine whether eating Pop-Tarts for breakfast increased the aggression of second graders during their morning play period. After feeding a group of 20 students Pop-Tarts for breakfast she observed that, on average, the students committed 4.5 aggressive behaviors during their morning play period. In this example, the descriptive statistic is:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 61

  1. Rather than considering a long list of body weights for all women studied by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the CDC might report a single number. This is known as a:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 62

  1. This polygon represents a fictional distribution of scores.

    Figure: Frequency Polygon


    Reference: Figure 3

    (Figure: Frequency Polygon) Based on the frequency distribution, how many participants scored between 1 and 3?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 63

  1. This table represents the fictional scores of a set of participants who rated their happiness on a scale from 1 to 7, with 1 indicating very unhappy and 7 indicating very happy.

    Table: Happiness
    X
    7
    6
    5
    11 
    4
    10 
    3
    2
    1
     
    Reference: Table 1

    (Table: Happiness) How many participants did not rate their happiness as either 4 or 5?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 64

  1. This polygon represents a fictional distribution of ages for speed-daters. The researcher wanted to know how many people in their 20s attended such events. The polygon shows the number of people ranging in age from 20 to 29.

    Figure: Speed-Daters in Their 20s


    Reference: Figure 4

    (Figure: Speed-Daters in Their 20) What seems to be the shape of the distribution of speed-daters in their 20s?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 65

  1. This table shows tests scores for a cumulative final exam in a general education, social science course, such as introduction to psychology. 

    Table: Test Scores
    Interval Frequency
    90–99
    23
    80–89
    41
    70–79
    78
    60–69
    36
    50–59
    18
    40–49
    7
    30–39
    12
    20–29
    3
     
    Reference: Table 4

    (Table: Test Scores) If passing is a 60% or higher, what percentage of the class failed this test?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 66

  1. Researchers often want to understand individual variables and the values observed. Rather than examining a long list of numbers, they might consider organizing and displaying the values using a:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 67

  1. This table represents the fictional scores of a set of participants who rated their level of depression on a scale from 0 to 10, with 0 indicating no feelings of depression and 10 indicating very depressed.

    Table: Depression
     
    Score
    Frequency
    Percent
    10
    1
    2.86
    9
    6
    17.14
    8
    1
    2.86
    7
    1
    2.86
    6
    4
    11.43
    5
    2
    5.71
    4
    1
    2.86
    3
    1
    2.86
    2
    11
    31.43
    1
    5
    ?
    0
    2
    5.71
     
    Reference: Table 2

    (Table: Depression) How many participants reported their level of depression at 5 or above?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 68

  1. This table shows summer salaries for some hypothetical college students. 

    Table: Summer Salaries
    Interval
    Frequency
    6000–6999
    6
    5000–5999
    19
    4000–4999
    31
    3000–3999
    66
    2000–2999
    52
    1000–1999
    24
    0–999
    13
     
    Reference: Table 5

    (Table: Summer Salaries) What kind of frequency distribution is this?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 69

  1. This table represents the fictional scores of a set of participants who rated their level of depression on a scale from 0 to 10, with 0 indicating no feelings of depression and 10 indicating very depressed.

    Table: Depression
     
    Score
    Frequency
    Percent
    10
    1
    2.86
    9
    6
    17.14
    8
    1
    2.86
    7
    1
    2.86
    6
    4
    11.43
    5
    2
    5.71
    4
    1
    2.86
    3
    1
    2.86
    2
    11
    31.43
    1
    5
    ?
    0
    2
    5.71
     
    Reference: Table 2

    (Table: Depression) How many participants rated their depression levels?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 70

  1. A duplication of scientific results in a different context or with a different sample is:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 71

  1. Which of the following are independent events?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 72

  1. Brent tosses a quarter 4 times and 3 times it comes up heads. The proportion of heads is:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 73

  1. Dr. Baker designed an experimental study to assess potential differences between science students and art students on a math reasoning abilities test. Dr. Baker found a mean difference in math performance between science and art students. On average, art students performed higher on the math reasoning test compared to the science students. Dr. Baker's findings support which hypothesis?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 74

  1. A(n) ________ refers to the result of a(n) ________.
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 75

  1. Without many trials, we cannot determine true probabilities of events. However, over the long run, and numerous trials, the expected relative-frequency of events is very clear and predictable. This is known as the:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 76

  1. ________ refers to the occurrence of events over the long run, and _______ refers to the calculation of the number of successes divided by the number of trials.
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 77

  1. If the standard deviation for a population, as estimated from a sample, is s = 5.6, then the standard error for a sample size of N = 16 is:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 78

  1. A researcher collects 15 data points that yield a mean of 9.164 and a standard deviation (based on N – 1) of 2.377. If he is comparing the sample to a population mean of 10.6 using a single-sample t test, what would he find for the effect size?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 79

  1. A researcher studies 45 volunteer citizens from a small community and asks them about the amount of caffeine (in milligrams) they ingest before and after lunch each day. Two measures are taken from each participant for a total of 90 data points. The degrees of freedom for this paired-samples study are:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 80

  1. Assume we know the following for a paired-samples t test: N = 9, Mdifference = 13.19, s = 22.3. What are the critical cutoffs for a two-tailed test with alpha of 0.05?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 81

  1. When conducting a paired-samples t test, we can assess the practical importance of our obtained results by calculating:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 82

  1. When conducting a paired-samples t test, we compare our sample mean difference to:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 83

  1. Assume we know the following for a paired-samples t test: N = 19, Mdifference = 13.19, s = 22.3. Calculate the effect size using Cohen's d.
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 84

  1. When performing a single-sample t test, an effect size of 0.80 would be interpreted as a:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 85

  1. We reject the null hypothesis if the test statistic
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 86

  1. When attempting to find a percentage associated with a z score, the first step involves a ________ to ________ transformation.
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 87

  1. In one statistics course, students reported studying an average of 9.92 hours a week, with a standard deviation of 4.54. Treating this class as the population, what percent of students study more than 8 hours?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 88

  1. Because of the principle of ________, when sample sizes are at least 30, the distribution will most likely resemble a normal distribution.
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 89

  1. If the percentage of scores falling between the mean and a z score of -1.14 is 37.29, then what is the percentage of scores falling between the mean and a z score of 1.14?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 90

  1. What are the consequences of succeeding in meeting all the assumptions of a parametric test when performing research?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 91

  1. The phrase “statistically significant” does not mean
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 92

  1. In one statistics course, students reported studying an average of 9.92 hours a week, with a standard deviation of 4.54. Mark studies 16 hours per week. What percent of students study more than Mark?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 93

  1. To determine our critical values or cutoffs for an independent-samples t test, we use:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 94

  1. Similar to what Stella Cunliffe did at Guinness, we can “de-bias” experiments by:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 95

  1. To calculate a confidence interval for an independent-samples t test, we use the:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 96

  1. Independent-samples t tests are also called:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 97

  1. ________ is a weighted average of the two estimates of ________.
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 98

  1. An independent-samples t test was conducted to compare gas expenses of diesel truck owners to owners of regular gas trucks. Imagine the mean gas consumption in one week amounted to $68 for diesel trucks and $84 for regular gas trucks. Imagine also that values were calculated for sdifference of 6.9, 21.74 for pooled variance, and 82 for degrees of freedom total. Around which value would we center the confidence interval?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 99

  1. Following are the results of an independent-samples t test: t(18) = –2.11, p < 0.05. In the current example, the degrees of freedom are:
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

Question 100

  1. Why is it necessary to use the pooled variance when conducting an independent-samples t test?
     
     
     
     
     

1 points   

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Subject Mathematics
Due By (Pacific Time) 08/10/2015 03:36 pm
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