Project #80873 - Psychology discussion

The nature-nurture debate is also found in personality psychology. How does it apply to this field? How are twin studies used?

What is meant by the gene-environment interaction perspective as it applies to personality? Provide an example.

Explain the 5-Factor Model (Big 5) of Personality. Is there a biological basis to the factors?

Select one aspect drawn from any of the resources in this session that is of interest to you. Explain why it captured your interest. 

 

 

Student 1: 

 

The nature-nurture debate is also found in personality psychology. How does it apply to this field? How are twin studies used?

 The nature-nurture debate applies to personality psychology because the personality of a person is shaped by that person’s genetics and environment contribute to the shaping of his or her personality (Turkheimer, 2014). 

Twin studies are used by examining the similarities and differences of monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. That helps determine which traits and characteristics are genetic and which ones are due to environment (Turkheimer, 2014).

 What is meant by the gene-environment interaction perspective as it applies to personality? Provide an example.

 Gene-environment interaction perspective applies to personality because people can be genetically predisposed to certain things, and their environments can either cause whatever they might be predisposed to to be more or less expressive (Gene-Environment Interaction, 2015).

 An example of gene-environment interaction could be someone who happens to be genetically predisposed to extroversion raised in an environment that promotes being social and outgoing. Since the person’s environment and genetics are both pushing him or her toward extroversion, that person is more likely to be extroverted.

 Explain the 5-Factor Model (Big 5) of Personality. Is there a biological basis to the factors?

 The 5-Factor Model (Big 5) of Personality consists of openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (Module 3: Constitutional Approach, 2015). Yes, there is a biological basis to these factors, but they also depend on environment. 

 Select one aspect drawn from any of the resources in this session that is of interest to you. Explain why it captured your interest. 

 The most interesting thing to me was the twin studies. The reason that it captured my interest is that it helps people understand what different aspects of personality can be attributed to nature or nurture.

 References:

 Gene-Environment Interaction. (2015). Retrieved September 2, 2015, from https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/behavior/behavior-and-genetics/v/gene-environment-interaction

 Module 3: Constitutional Approach. (2015). Retrieved on September 2, 2015 from https://umuc.equella.ecollege.com/file/43e121fe-7fe5-411e-9f89-8fb8f3ec2215/1/PSYC335-1109.zip/Modules/M3-Module_3/S3-Commentary.html

 Turkheimer, E. (2014). the Nature-Nurture Question. Retrieved on September 2 , 2015 from https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/behavior/behavior-and-genetics/v/twin-studies-and-adoption-studies

 

 

Student 2:

The nature-nurture debate is also found in personality psychology. How does it apply to this field? How are twin studies used?

The field of personality psychology uses behavioral genetics to study the degrees to which nature (our genetic) or nurture (the environment) causes behavior or can be linked to the development of diseases and mental disorders, such as schizophrenia (Turkheimer, 2014; Khan Academy, 2015)). In general tries behavioral genetics via adoption studies and twin studies (identical and fraternal twins) to shed a little more light into how genes and environment influence one another regarding specific traits – our personality (Turkheimer, 2014).

Twin studies are of great importance, because they provide researchers with a scientifically ideal situation – twins occur naturally (no need to manipulate or trying to control various important variables, such as the genetic makeup) and they either share all of their genetic makeup (identical twins) or only about half (fraternal twins). In addition, the twins will grow up in environments that are similar, which allows researcher in an ethically justifiable manner to determine to some extent if a trait or mental disorder is more influenced by genetics or by how someone is brought up. This becomes apparent once the different components, such as the genetic makeup and the environment of identical twins (share the same genes and environment - 100%) is compared to fraternal twins (share the same environment but only 50% of the genes) in regards to what causes Schizophrenia (Khan Academy, 2015), for instance. If the environment would be the primary cause for someone to develop Schizophrenia than both set of twins would show similar results – either develop or not develop Schizophrenia. However, if genetics would be the primary cause of it than the results would differ. In other words, if Schizophrenia is primarily caused by one’s genetic makeup than one of the fraternal twins most likely would not show any signs of Schizophrenia or signs that differ from his/her other twin. On the other hand, if Schizophrenia would be primarily caused by how someone grows up than the genetic differences of the fraternal twins would make no difference and both would develop Schizophrenia.

What is meant by the gene-environment interaction perspective as it applies to personality? Provide an example.

According to my current understanding describes the gene-environment interaction the fact that our genetic differences play a vital role regarding the degree to which the environment can alter someone’s behavior. This was very nicely elaborated in the video “Gene environment interaction,” by the Khan Academy (2015). Our physical appearance plays a tremendous role regarding how others will interact with us, which on the other hand influences how social or antisocial we become. For instance, one of my friends had freckles, which never was an issue between me and her and during our kindergarten time. However, these freckles became an issue for her once we started going to high school. Up to this point was my friend a kind and open person (social), who loved to hang out with others. But the constant negative comments about her freckles began to change her. She didn’t like to go to school anymore or hang out with us/others afterwards. Overtime, she began to isolate herself and even acted somewhat aggressively toward others, which was so unlike her. This example demonstrates in my opinion that different environmental settings can cause a change in behavior, which is to some degree influenced or due to one’s genetic makeup.

Explain the 5-Factor Model (Big 5) of Personality. Is there a biological basis to the factors?

The most recognized 5-Factor model as of today is the model by Costa and McCrae, which is known as the OCEAN-model (University of Maryland University College, n. d.). Each of the letters describes “one personality.”

O - Openness

Openness describes someone how is open minded regarding values, ideas and imagination. He/she is in general open for new experiences.

C – Conscientiousness

Conscientiousness describes individuals who are driven, organized and show high degree of discipline in order to achieve their goals.

E – Extroversion

An extroverted person is full of energy, is confident, outgoing, but also reserved.

A – Agreeableness

If a person is agreeable than he/she tends to be helpful, trustworthy, cooperative in the sense that he/she tries to agree with others rather than disagree.

N – Neuroticism

Neuroticism describes individuals that show not a lot of variation in their emotions, they are fairly stable. However, they tend to experience emotions, such as anger, easily and therefore, can be very impulsive (Bell, n. d.).

Based on my current knowledge, I would say that there is in fact a biological basis to all these factors. This is for one supported by the evidence collected via the long-term studies by Cattell, Costa and McCrae (UMUC, 2015). Secondly, the video about “gene-environment interaction” (Khan Academy, 2015) also pointed out that most of our physical appearance (phenotype) can determine how our environment and the people within interact with us, which ultimately guides our behavior – being social or rather antisocial.

Select one aspect drawn from any of the resources in this session that is of interest to you. Explain why it captured your interest

I thought that the EAS Temperament Model introduced by Heffner (n. d.) was very interesting. This is because it looks at/defines humans’ responses to external stimuli in dimensions, which is similar to what we do/did with personality (Big Five Model; UMUC, 2015). The dimensions described in the EAS are emotionality, activity and sociability all of which describe reactions that over-time if kept up will eventually turn into habits – Eysenck (UMUC, 2015). However, the most interesting aspect about temperament is that these traits – public displayed responses – can be observed shortly after birth, which shows in a very obvious manner that there is a direct connection between biological components and personality, as well as biological factors and environmental ones. Overall, this provides in my opinion more support regarding that both nature and nurture play a vital role regarding the development and refinement of our personality.

Nevertheless, I personally find it very difficult to distinguish temperament from personality, because I find that they are somewhat connected to one another. In other words, I think that the temperament, one’s public response to external stimuli, is the first step of forming/defining one’s personality.

References:

Bell, B. Ph. D. (n. d.). The big five personality traits. Blue Fox Communications. Retrieved from http://www.psychologyandsociety.com/bigfivetraits.html

Heffner, C. L. (n. d.). Chapter 3: Section 2: Hans Eysenck’s structure of personality and section 3: Temperament and personality. Retrieved fromhttp://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/

Khan Academy. (2015). Twin studies and adoption studies. Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/behavior/behavior-and-genetics/v/twin-studies-and-adoption-studies

Khan Academy. (2015). Gene environment interaction. Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/behavior/behavior-and-genetics/v/gene-environment-interaction

Turkheimer, E. (2014). The nature-nurture question. University of Virginia. Retrieved from https://umuc.equella.ecollege.com/file/10eb59e8-9f6d-42cc-8e60-8d2e697e049c/1/TheNature-NurtureQuestion.pdf

University of Maryland University College. (n. d.). Constitutional approach. Retrieved from https://umuc.equella.ecollege.com/file/43e121fe-7fe5-411e-9f89-8fb8f3ec2215/1/PSYC335-1109.zip/Modules/M3-Module_3/S3-Commentary.html

Subject English
Due By (Pacific Time) 09/05/2015 12:00 am
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