1. We think of fear and anger as separate emotions, but in some ways they may be similar. As a thought question (there’s no “right” answer), what do you think are the fundamental behavioral similarities between fear and anger/aggression? How do fear and anger differ in the brain?
Both fear and aggression are evolutionary protection mechanisms, therefore it is not surprising that the amygdala is known to play a role in the production of both aggression and fear; although, the similarities stop there. Aggression also stimulates the hypothalamus, where fear is primarily controlled through amygdala (ScienceDaily, 2015).
Both fear and aggression, being protection mechanisms, are donned in self-interest activating the sympathetic nervous system which releases hormones, but the activators of fear and aggression vary. For example, heat has been known to cause people to aggress (Dahl, 2013), but unless the heat is life threatening it often is not known to commonly cause people to fear it. The area of suprachiasmatic nucleus (body’s biological clock) in the hypothalamus has known to be associated with both sleep and aggression (you get cranky when you get tired), but has absolutely nothing to do with fear (unless you have a sleep-related phobia).
While aggression is an offensive-defense mechanism, fear is the opposite of aggression eliciting freeze or flight responses. These differences involve cognition: aggression is known to correlate with decreased cognition (Dahl, 2013), while fear correlates with increased cognition(Nili, Goldberg, Weizman, & Dudai, 2010). This makes sense because of the flow of information through the brain. When an image comes into the brain it goes to the occipital lobes for reconstruction; then, the amygdala receives (reviews) the data prior to determine potential threats against its memory of past threats and determines the correct action before allowing the analytical actions of the next stage, the prefrontal cortex, to further decide if the amygdala’s choice was correct or not and what further actions are required (Saylor, 2015).
Evolutionarily speaking, if the amygdala decides aggressive measures are to be used than the amygdala dictated that the situation does not have time to allow for the prefrontal cortex to analyze. In this sense, aggression can be seen as a metaphor where the amygdala is the brain’s president and the need for aggression is like the president declaring martial law for swiftness: advoiding the slow processes of debate found in congress (the prefrontal cortex). In non-wartime situations, the regular processes of congress take over to dictate what we do and don’t have to worry about and what it is that we are going to do about it.
Dahl, M. (2013). Heat waves lead to hot tempers -- and here's why. Retrieved from Today: Health and Wellness: http://www.today.com
Kennaway, D., & Murray, G. (2008). Body clock. Catalyst. Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/2351893.htm?site=catalyst
Nili, U., Goldberg, H., Weizman, A., & Dudai, Y. (2010). Fear thou not: Activity of frontal and temporal circuits in moments of real-life courage. ScienceDirect, 66(6), 949–962. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.06.009
2. After reading Milton Diamond’s article, “Biological Aspects of Sexual Orientation and Identity” (in the course Content), describe an example of a potential biologically-related cause of homosexuality that you find the most compelling. How might biology in this case interact with the environment to produce a specific sexual orientation? How does this help us understand heterosexuality?
According to this article, we all have a predisposition to orient in a certain way but our preferences are influenced by the interactions of nature and nurture.In an example of a potentially biological cause of homosexuality, I would say that the nurture is the one that I find most compelling. Nurture deals with a persons experiences and the things that they were exposed to that make up who they are. Contributing factors could be a persons social and cultural forces.
For example, if a boy grew up in an environment where he did not have a male influence and his social surrounds consisted of being around women by default, one could assume that is would play a role in his identity. If his gender pattern was more flexible, he could likely lean towards the sexual orientation that was more familiar to him. But if this is proven to accurate, someone with a predisposition to be heterosexual will likely be heterosexuality. Regardless of the nurture, the nature side would still be a factor in determining their sexuality.
This helps us understand heterosexuality because the nature and nurture of being heterosexual is the norm. We are raised to be a certain way and to like certain things so the predetermined aspects sets the tone for gender patterns and sexual identity.
Saylor. (2015). Principals of Social Phychology. Retrieved from Saylor.org: https://saylordotorg.github.io/text_principles-of-social-psychology/
ScienceDaily. (2015). Aggression. Retrieved from ScienceDaily: http://www.sciencedaily.com
3. Altruism refers to any behavior that is designed to increase another person’s welfare, and particularly those actions that do not seem to provide a direct reward to the person who performs them. Empathy refers to an affective response in which a person understands, and even feels, another person’s distress and experiences events the way the other person does. Empathy influences altruism simply because when you experience empathy if you can you want to help out. For example, I had a friend who had a miscarriage. Another friend of mine also had a miscarriage. When my first friend had the miscarriage my other friend almost immediately wanted to reach out and help and do whatever she could to help her because she had experienced three miscarriages. I believe because she was able to empathize with my friend the direct result was altruism.
4. Diffusion of responsibility is when a person is less likely to take responsibility when others are present. Social situations have a high influential effect on helping. Because of this, diffusion of responsibility usually occurs in group settings. There have been studies conducted that show that group sizes effect the timeliness of help that is received by others. The larger the group, the slower people are to take action (Stangor, Jhangiani,, & Tarry, 2014).
Stangor, D. C., Jhangiani,, D., & Tarry, D. (2014, Sept 26). Principles of Social Psychology – 1st International Edition. Retrieved Sept 17, 2015, from BC Campus: http://opentextbc.ca/socialpsychology/
5. Aggression means to have some sort of anger built up that results in hostile or violent behavior. There are many variables that contribute to aggression but the text specifically points out hormones, alcohol, and negative emotions. Although women have lower levels of testosterone than men, they are more influenced by smaller changes in those levels. Alcohol increases the likelihood that people will respond to situations more aggressively. This is said to be true since alcohol disrupts executive functions which help us plan, organize, reason, and control our emotions. Last, negative emotions such as frustration or discomfort are more likely to result in violent behavior as well.
According to the text, the male sex hormone testosterone is associated with increased aggression in both animals and humans. However, I believe aggression in equally present in both men and women. Men may be more likely to act out physically whereas women may be more likely to gossip or criticize.
After researching further into the topic I found that Black males as well as Hispanic females are reported to engage in higher levels of aggression within the United States. The United States showed remarkably higher levels of aggression compared to France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Japan. I also found that there tends to be much more aggression throughout Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Southern and Middle Africa than in other regions of the world. Overall, I believe aggression varies within each ethnicity. However, this can vary depending on one’s surroundings (including location) and how people were brought up.
1.)What are "trait facets" of the Big 5 and how do they contribute to our understanding of behavior?
- Openness: Allows a person to a big imagination, a willing need to experiment, be very curious, and experience a depth in different emotions.
- Conscientiousness: Allows a person to have a scene of order, responsibility, this person may also be goal driven, and have great self discipline.
- Extraversion: Allows a person have a warmth about them, that person is also assertive, but they also have an excitement seeking side, along with their positive emotions.
- Agreeableness: Allows a person to trust in others, but they have a certain sincerity about them, they also are modest, and also very sympathetic.
- Neuroticism : Allows a person to have anxiety, go through depression, also have a problem with self-consciousness
2.)Explain the person-situation debate. Provide your perspective on the most influential factor on behavior: person, situation, or person-situation interaction. Why do you believe it is the most influential?
- The person-situation debate refers to a person and or a situation that is very influential in determining a person's behavior. Coupled with that one would think that this a just personality trait test, but in actually it is not! Many personality psychologist believe that a persons true behavior or should I say personality is determined by what type of situation they are going through. To me I feel that the situation has the biggest influence. For example if someone is going through a stressful situation thats causes them to have a stressful behavior or a stressful attitude. But if that person is not going through a situation that causes stress I don't think that they would have the same type of personality.
3.)After taking the Brief Strengths Test, print your results. What are your top 5 strengths? Please list and explain how you might have acquired these "traits". Select one and provide an example of how that trait plays-out in your life. How do you exhibit that behavior? Provide an example in your work, school or social realm.
- My top five strengths were Humor, Open-mindedness, Spirituality, Leadership,Hope. When it comes to one of the traits that I would say plays in my everyday life it's has to be humor. Everyone knows the saying " Laugh to keep yourself from crying". But I am a firm believer in that. I always try to find the humor in almost every situation for the most part. I am what you can call the family clown. I am always trying to make someone happy by making them laugh.
Authentic Happiness. (2015). Retrieved September 17, 2015, from https://www.authentichappiness.sas.upenn.edu/testcenter
Diener, E., & Lucas, R. (2014). Personality Traits. 1-15. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
Boeree, C. (2006). Personality Theories. Retrieved September 17, 2015, from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/perscontents.html
Heffner, C. (2015). Chapter 7: Section 1: Trait Theory. Retrieved September 17, 2015, from http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/trait/#.VfdUWvRThyU
The Big Five. (2011, June 20). Retrieved September 17, 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5aNvMOE0CfE
What are "trait facets" of the Big 5 and how do they contribute to our understanding of behavior?
The trait facets are like the chapters of the big five traits (Big Five Personalty Model, 2013). The big five traits also known with the acronym OCEAN are extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and intellect or openness to experience (Deiner and Lucas, 2014).
These facets can describe they can show more clearly what a person is like and who they are. When you look at them they are the first level of one’s personality. When we look at these facets there is a likely chance that most people will not have all of them in their as part of their descriptive traits. The biggest thing I took from the readings is that most people fall into the middle of the big five traits on a scale. Those are the people who can seem to be comfortable and fit in to any situation
Explain the person-situation debate. Provide your perspective on the most influential factor on behavior: person, situation, or person-situation interaction. Why do you believe it is the most influential?
The person-situation debate looks at how people’s behavior may change depending on the situation (Diener & Lucas, 2014). I am a person who likes to go out and party with many people. When I am out partying it is not necessarily a club scene or have to be at a bar. I have friends who fit into many categories. I have my friends who go to church and are against all forms of drinking alcohol or any other party descriptive desires. I can also hang out with the group who likes to excessively drink and party all night long. Like many people we can adapt to the situation and have fun either way. Personality traits and the situation are both factors that will affect the reaction of the person (Diener & Lucas, 2014). These situations a person is placed into is what the person-situation debate is discussing.
After taking the Brief Strengths Test, print your results. What are your top 5 strengths? Please list and explain how you might have acquired these "traits". Select one and provide an example of how that trait plays-out in your life. How do you exhibit that behavior? Provide an example in your work, school or social realm
My top 5 strengths are Citizenship (Social Responsibility, Loyalty, Teamwork), Humor (Playfulness), Fairness (Equality and Justice), Creativity (Originality, Ingenuity), andLearning (Love of Learning) (Authentic Happiness, 2015).
• Citizenship (Social Responsibility, Loyalty, Teamwork)— I am an active member in my community and am the President of the Parent Teacher Association at my school. I would say I get these traits from my mother and father who were active in my school. They cared about me and the type of education I was received. When I grew up I wanted to be part of my child’s education and school like they were. This trait is a very big factor in all of the other traits that I have. I must use everything I have listed as my traits from the quiz in order to be successful in this endeavor. I guess you could say that I am a people person and work hard to make sure all members in my group are happy. The other way I am successful is that I am a teacher in the school and have a love for learning new things. Everyday I must learn something new in order to be helpful in teaching new things to my students.
• Humor (Playfulness)—Humor is something I got from my father. He was always telling a joke or acting like one of the kids. He did not mind playing in a sandbox with the little kids even though he is 50.
• Fairness (Equality and Justice)—This came from both of my parents, they always wanted me to understand others and not rush to judgement.
- Creativity (Originality, Ingenuity) – My mother had a craft room and was always helping me with my school projects. She always could help me find a way to look at my project from a different point of view. She allowed me to try new things and if I failed she told me I just found one way it could be done better or differently.
- Learning (Love of Learning)- I can never get my hands on enough new information. I want to make things around me better and that is done through research and learning. That is why I want to be History teacher, but I am an art teacher right now and new styles of art are always fun to learn.
Authentic Happiness,(2015). Retrieved September 15, 2015 from https://www.authentichappiness.sas.upenn.edu/testcenter
Diener, E., Lucus, R. E. (2014). Personality Traits. Retrieved on September 15, 2015 from https://umuc.equella.ecollege.com/file/bad92e7c-5aae-4322-9052-0cdcd9ce0e85/1/PersonalityTraits.pdf
The Big Five Personality Model. (2013). YouTube. Retrieved on September 15, 2015 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=xXATiPciG8o
|Due By (Pacific Time)
||09/19/2015 12:00 am