Project #83482 - Psychology/Development

Discuss the following Propositions:

 

Developmental, psychosexual, psychosocial.

 

Next, please respond in 50- 75 words to the following discussion:

Intelligence, cognition and memory

In reading 13, the text illustrates the issue of self-fulfilling prophecies; do we really get what we expect? This section addresses how observers often have particular anticipations or predispositions that may cause them to transmit inadvertent gestures to a participant being studied (Hock, 2013).This triggers the participant to respond in a manner that is consistent with the expectations of the observer. This will lead an experiment to become invalid due to experimenter expectancy effect (Hock, 2013).This plays a major role in the classroom when evaluating students against the pre-existing expectations of teachers. Over the years this has led to in-depth analysis of the potential racial and cultural bias present in standardized testing. This argument seems to hold merit since traditionally the dominant culture has created the tests and ethnic minorities have scored lower on these tests than white children (Hock, 2013).

In reading 14 we are introduced to Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Gardner proposed that there were many different mental abilities that individuals possessed as opposed to a single, generalized intelligence (Hock, 2013).Gardener was focused on studying the biology and functioning of the brain. Without his influences we may never have comprehended the distinct tasks assigned to each subsection of the human brain. Furthermore, we now recognize that specific segments of the human brain are responsible for different traits of intelligence (Hock, 2013). Educators now view teaching and learning from a new perspective.

In reading 16, we observe the fallibility of human recollection. Elizabeth Loftus has dispelled many assumptions regarding the accuracy of "eye witness testimony.” She proposes that memories are not unwavering however; but are persuadable and unreliable over time (Hock, 2013). An example would be how two people can completely disagree on a story that happened simultaneously to both parties. Today, we are now cognizant of the potential errors that may be present when accepting a firsthand account as unequivocally accurate. Her studies play a key role in the need for accurate testimony in high stakes courtroom trials that could potentially send the innocent to prison or let the guilty walk free.

References

 

Hock, R. (2013). Forty sudies that changed psychology: Explorations into the history of psychological research (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson.

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