Project #83679 - Psychology discussion

Compare and contrast classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social learning models. Be specific.

Explain the limitations of the behavioral perspective.

Review Ellis' model (Boree, 2006). Select 1 "irrational idea" discussed that you believe relates to your own beliefs. Using the A-B-C Model, select a behavioral scenario and explain how this belief causes you (or might cause you) emotional distress. (Distress here can mean being upset, sad, angry, depressed, etc.) You must explain each element in the scenario for your example: A, B & C.

 

 

Please refer to these sources or the teacher will fail me.

http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/ellis.html

http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/perscontents.html

http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/behavioral/#.VgXJLSBViko

http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/learning/#.Vfw4TvRThyV

 

respond to these 2 students helpful, substantive, and detailed. If you respond like your a teacher I'll give you a 1.

 

1. Compare and contrast classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social learning models. Be specific.

Classical conditioning involves pairing a previously neutral stimulus (such as the sound of a bell) with an unconditioned stimulus (the taste of food). This unconditioned stimulus naturally and automatically triggers salivating as a response to the food, which is known as the unconditioned response. After associating the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, the sound of the bell alone will start to evoke salivating as a response. The sound of the bell is now known as the conditioned stimulus and salivating in response to the bell is known as the conditioned response.
Operant conditioning focuses on using either reinforcement or punishment to increase or decrease a behavior. Through this process, an association is formed between the behavior and the consequences for that behavior. For example, imagine that a trainer is trying to teach a dog to fetch a ball. When the dog successful chases and picks up the ball, the dog receives praise as a reward. When the animal fails to retrieve the ball, the trainer withholds the praise. Eventually, the dog forms an association between his behavior of fetching the ball and receiving the desired reward. 
The differences between classical and operant conditioning is to focus on whether the behavior is involuntary or voluntary. Classical conditioning involves making an association between an involuntary response and a stimulus, while operant conditioning is about making an association between a voluntary behavior and a consequence. In operant conditioning, the learner is also rewarded with incentives, while classical conditioning involves no such enticements. Also classical conditioning is passive on the part of the learner, while operant conditioning requires the learner to actively participate and perform some type of action in order to be rewarded or punished.
In social learning theory Albert Bandura (1977) states behavior is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning. Children observe the people around them behaving in various ways and later imitate their behavior. During the famous Bobo doll experiment (Bandura, 1961) the children observed an adult acting violently toward a Bobo doll. When the children were later allowed to play in a room with the Bobo doll, they began to imitate the aggressive actions they had previously observed.
Explain the limitations of the behavioral perspective.
One of the limits that behavioral theory has is the understanding of human personalities and human differences. For example, it still can’t prove the reason people respond differently to very similar situations (Heffner, 2015). A second limitation is external reward decrease the desire behavior. For instance, if you are getting paid to do something you love you will no longer love doing it. A third argument is treatment based on learning theory has limited or no effect in personality change (Heffner, 2015).
Review Ellis' model (Boree, 2006). Select 1 "irrational idea" discussed that you believe relates to your own beliefs. Using the A-B-C Model, select a behavioral scenario and explain how this belief causes you (or might cause you) emotional distress. (Distress here can mean being upset, sad, angry, depressed, etc.) You must explain each element in the scenario for your example: A, B & C.
The irrational ideal that I choose from Ellis’ model is:
1. The idea that it is a dire necessity for adults to be loved by significant others for almost everything they do – instead of their concentrating on their own self-respect, on winning approval for practical purposes, and on loving rather than on being loved. 
I believe that it’s impossible to be liked or loved by everybody. No matter how popular you are, there will always be someone who doesn’t like you. Also, getting people to like you takes time and effort. If you try to get everyone to like you, you won’t have any time or energy left over to do the things that you want to do. The ABC model shows that there always going to be someone that does not like you. 
A. Activating Event = my coworker don’t like me because she thinks that I am too cocky. 
B. Belief = I believe that I am not cocky at all I am very confident and I shouldn’t lower my standers because of what someone think of me even though I will have to count on that someone to save my live one day. 
C. Consequences = I could allow it to create a hostile place of work. Or, I could lower my standers to make her like me.

Reference: 
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bandura, A. Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. (1961). Transmission of aggression through the imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575-582
Heffner, C. (2015). Chapter 9: Section 4: Limits of Behavioral Theory. Retrieved September 22, 2015, from http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/cognitive/#.Vfw4XPRThyU

 

Student 2. Compare and contrast classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social learning models. Be specific.

Pavlovian (classical) conditioning: Pavlovian conditioning is whenever neutral stimuli is associated with a psychologically significant event; operant conditioning is a behavior associated with the occurrence of a significant event; and social learning is behavior without any external reward or reinforcement (Heffner, 2015).

The contrast between classical and operant is the behavior is learned during a or because of certain stimuli and the contrast with social learning is that the behavior is not learned but it is associated with a stimulus.

Explain the limitations of the behavioral perspective.

There are at least three limitations of the behavioral perspective; (1.) the overall understanding of human personalities and human differences; (2.) without external rewards, there were also no external pressures, punishments, and expectations; and (3.) focusing on this small aspect of the person’s life, we are actually diverting them away from true happiness and self-actualization     (Heffner, 2015). 

Review Ellis' model (Boree, 2006). Select 1 "irrational idea" discussed that you believe relates to your own beliefs. Using the A-B-C Model, select a behavioral scenario and explain how this belief causes you (or might cause you) emotional distress. (Distress here can mean being upset, sad, angry, depressed, etc.) You must explain each element in the scenario for your example: A, B & C.

The irrational idea that I chose is,” The idea that it is easier to avoid than to face life difficulties and self-responsibilities -- instead of the idea that the so-called easy way is usually much harder in the long run.”(Boree, 2006)Dealing with your child being bullied is never something a parent wants to go through. It started in the fourth grade for my son and ended in the fifth grade (at the same small school).

A. Experience: The boy that bullied my son started messing with him in the fourth grade during recess. The child would provoke fights with my son by playing aggressively during sports or he would run/walk by him and nudge in against his shoulder calling him names. I must admit that my son was not the quite type; he was informing his administrative staff on what was going, they told him “not “Johnny” he’s a good kid are you sure you are not bothering him.” This went on for about four months at the end of the school year his fourth grade year. He did not inform me until after the school and by then there was nothing I could do. The start of his fifth grade year, “Johnny” started again with the same things at recess and after school this time. I finally spoke to the school staff around October and I assumed that it was under control. January of the following year, “Johnny’s” mother accused my son of threatening her son over the school gmail.com account. Long story short….the emails that she printed off at home and showed the principal and the military police were cropped. My husband asked the principal to check our son’s account for the emails and the emails started with “Johnny” and ended with “Johnny” threatening to kill my son. The child paid a friend to help him “jump” my son one day after school and the mother also attempted to jump on my son as well. Charges were pressed on the mother but the children were not of legal age to press charges on (German law, I was told).

B. Irrational Belief: My thought process was that I could have avoided all of this only if I listened to my son more. I started adding the question “did anyone mess with you today, include threaten you, push you, say something mean to you” along with how was your day. I know that my son was getting annoyed. I started focusing on the school, popping up at random times during the day to ensure that my son was “ok”.

C. Consequence: I felt some kind of way for several months. I was not sure if I needed to just pull my son out of school and home school him, send him back to the sates, I just did not know how to handle this situation. But what I did notice was that my extra over protection was starting to ruin me and my son’s relationship. We started counseling together to better understand how each other and to get through this madness together. Now we are closer and better than ever!

Reference

Boeree, G. (2006). Personality Theories. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/perscontents.html

Heffner, C. L. Dr. (2015). Chapter 8 – 11. AllPsych. Retrieved from http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/learning/#.VgHRR5XlvIU

 

Subject English
Due By (Pacific Time) 09/26/2015 05:00 pm
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