Compare and contrast classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social learning models. Be specific.
Explain the limitations of the behavioral perspective.
Review Ellis' model (Boree, 2006). Select 1 "irrational idea" discussed that you believe relates to your own beliefs. Using the A-B-C Model, select a behavioral scenario and explain how this belief causes you (or might cause you) emotional distress. (Distress here can mean being upset, sad, angry, depressed, etc.) You must explain each element in the scenario for your example: A, B & C.
Please refer to these sources or the teacher will fail me.
respond to these 2 students
Student 1. 1. How would you distinguish amnesia from normal forgetting? When would you call an absent-minded person amnesic?
Amnesia is caused by damage to the brain, and forgetting is not; therefore I would not call an absent-minded person amnesic. There are two different types of amnesia: anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia to the hippocampus. Presumably, retrograde amnesia involves damage to the cortex, meaning that their long-term memories are lost, but because they comprehend and remember new memories I would not consider them absent-minded (Suzuki, 2015a).
Damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL), especially the amygdala and hippocampus regions, results in an impairment that prevents memories from being processed; therefore, the memories cannot undergo the process that makes it able to store the event in the long-term memory area of the brain, and it would be these individuals that I would consider an absent-minded person (Suzuki, 2015a).
Memories come in from all areas of the brain, and that is because a memory is a recording of your experience. For example, the primary auditory cortex (PAC) receives sounds in from the ear, and processes those sounds to send to the appropriate areas of the brain for further processing. After being categorized in the PAC, the spoken word then undergoes processing in Wernicke’s area where it becomes turned into meaning before traveling through the angular gyrus to Broca’s area where the meaning becomes processed into wording. We remember words that were spoken to us; ergo, after leaving Broca’s area, the neural pathways must split into an action pathway (probably the primary motor cortex) and another pathway that ends at the hippocampus. The hippocampus then activates the MTL where the memories undergo a series of consolidations which strengthen the memories enough to make the respected level of impact into the area of the brain the MTL chooses to store the memory (Suzuki, 2015b).
2. Different types of conditioning – a form of learning – are described in the NOBA “Conditioning and Learning” and in the Lecture 18 video lecture. See if you can describe an everyday example of conditioning. What kind of conditioning is it? What brain areas are involved?
My dad used to sit with me outside after a hard day of work in the sun and drink an ice cold beer with me, also, when it was hot out I would always go to the beach that was nearby. The desire I have now to drink beer at the beach on hot sunny days in a classical example of Pavlovian conditioning. Pavlovian conditioning, and all conditioning, is considered to be a non-declarative memory; videlicet, it does not undergo the consolidating process that declarative memories must go through in the MTL. Because the sun causes me to crave something, be it the water or an ice cold beer, it would be considered a simple conditioning, which is controlled through the cerebellar circuit (Suzuki, 2015a).
There is another type of conditioning that is going on here, because I am given a choice. The sun has generated the Pavlovian craving for beach and beer, but my mind has remembered that the beach tends to dehydrate you, as does the beer, and mixing the two is not a good idea: this form of conditioning is considered operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is considered to be a complex form of conditioning because it involves higher forms of cognition, of which are regulated through the hippocampus and the cortexes (Bouton, 2015; Suzuki, 2015b).
There is a third form of conditioning here: the beach involves driving to and from, and if I drank at the beach (with nots of drinking water too), I would have to take a risk driving back because it is illegal. The fear you feel when you make the choice to not drink and drive is called fear conditioning, which is located in your amygdala (Suzuki, 2015a).
Student 2. Question 1. The definition of particular aphasias has been refined over the years. What is it about this Woman: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gocIUW3E-go&feature=related or Man: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f2IiMEbMnPM&feature=related that leads to a diagnosis of Broca’s aphasia? What is it about this Gentleman: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aVhYN7NTIKU or this Lady: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dKTdMV6cOZw&feature=related that leads to a diagnosis of Wernicke's aphasia?
The woman seems to be able to read, but she has a problem of speaking out wat she is reading. She can read silently but speaking out the words is her main problem. The man in this video has a problem of reduced speech output. He is struggling to talk, but all that comes out are short utterances of less than four words. Such behavior is witnessed in somebody who is struggling to remember something. Or it can be somebody who has something to say but may lack the correct vocabulary to explain themselves. Broca’s aphasia also known as non-fluent aphasia is characterized by impaired speech, short utterances, and limited memory that are evident in these man and woman’s videos.
In the lady and gentleman’s videos, they show some fluency in speech but have a severe impairment in understanding some meaning of words. This impairment leads to the construction of broken and incomplete sentences. The word meanings are altered hence they are in most cases unable to understand wat is being communicated. This jargon speaking conditions are typical characteristics to Wernicke’s aphasia (Seshadri, 2004).
Seshadri, V. (April 12, 2004). "Aphasia". New Yorker New Yorker Magazine Incorporated-, 42- 42.
Question 2. Pretend you are a neuropsychologist, and that you have been asked to determine the abilities and deficits of people with aphasia. What tasks would you include in your examination to test for the presence of particular language deficits?
As a neuropsychologist will include the known weaknesses known with aphasia affected patients and observed their capabilities. Some of the tools include the use of conversational expository speech and auditory comprehension. People affected by aphasia are unable to speak fluently though they can read silently. The patients will be involved in a conversation, and those who will be unable to communicate fluently may be affected by aphasia. Reading, writing, and praxis is another tool that I will use. The subjects will be engaged in a reading aloud session, and those who will have speaking problems might be victims of aphasia. Assessment of narrative speech, syntax comprehension, category-specific word comprehension, and specific reading disorders are the most appropriate tools determining the different types of aphasia in patients (Teasell, 2006).
|Due By (Pacific Time)
||09/27/2015 12:00 am