Project #8436 - CYBER ETHICS ESSAY

Assignment #2: Current Issues in Free Speech 

Read the following stories: (The stories are pasted at the end of this post.)

-- The Electronic Frontier Foundation, December 18, 2012. "European Human Rights Court Finds Turkey in Violation of Freedom of Expression"


-- The Electronic Frontier Foundation, December 10, 2012. "
A Reminder: Online Free Speech is a Matter of Human Rights"

The Electronic Frontier Foundation has also presented a very thought provoking article regarding the notion that "
Free Speech is Only As Strong as It's Weakest Link."  Review the various roles that they outline to understand how censorship and other limitations may be imposed that restrict your ability to effectively have true freedom of speech online.

Compose a 1250-1500 word essay, using the assignment format that has been provided. Marks will be allotted for the development of your thesis and proper use of English grammar.

 

Topic:  Protecting Our Freedom of Speech in a Flat, Digital World

After you have reviewed the articles and have an understanding of how the various roles interact with our online realities, discuss how these topics relate to the Canadian context as to the various roles and what measures are in place (or need to be put in place) to preserve our fundamental right to freedom of speech (aside from those protections that are provided for in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms).  What can be learned from examples such as Turkey, China, Syria and Iran? What can be done to also preserve Canadian sovereignty over the relevant roles that are in play?


Things to Help You with the Essay
 
 
Assignment Format:

Each assignment will be a short  essay in response to a topic question that I will provide. Essays should be written in a clear and concise fashion, and follow consistently APA format
. Assignment marks will be calculated using the following scheme: 

I.                     Format (style, organization) - 20%
II.                   Clarity - 20%
III.                  Content - 60%, to be determined as follows:
                                                  i.      Information - 30%
                                                  ii.      References/Support - 10% ( atleast 3 academic resources).
                                                  iii.      Cyber-Ethics Scope  -20%
 
 
Structure of a Formal Essay (GUIDELINE only)
 
I.    Introduction
a.      introduction to general topic engages reader
b.      narrowing/focusing of topic
c.      thesis: statement of position taken on topic establishes direction of paper
II.   Body
a.      Part 1
                                                              i.      Topic sentence
1.      supporting evidence
2.      explanation/arguments about how evidence supports and develops argument/idea stated in topic sentence
                                                            ii.      Concluding sentence
1.      summarizes key idea
2.      links to next section
b.      Part 2
                                                              i.      Topic sentence
                                                            ii.      Argument and Evidence
                                                          iii.      Concluding sentence
c.      Part 3
                                                              i.      Topic sentence
                                                            ii.      Argument and Evidence
                                                          iii.      Concluding sentence
III.  Conclusion
a.      thesis restatement
b.      broadening of topic
c.      statement of importance and/or relevance
d.      insightful closure
 

 

DECEMBER 18, 2012 | BY ADI KADECEMBER 18, 2012 | BY ADI KAMDAR

European Human Rights Court Finds Turkey in Violation of Freedom of Expression

The European Court of Human Rights decided today that, unsurprisingly, Turkey had violated their citizens' right to freedom of expression by blocking Google Sites, sites.google.com.

Turkish law prohibits any insult towards Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the nation, as well as any general insult towards "Turkishness." This form of censorship has led, as one might expect, to some examples of egregious government overreach.

In 2009, a criminal court in Turkey issued an order to block a website that allegedly insulted Atatürk. The Turkish Telecommunications and Electronic Data Authority carried out the order by—wait for it—blocking sites.google.com in its entirety.

Along came Ahmet Y?ld?r?m, who used Google Sites to publish a personal blog and host academic papers. And then—because of a case that had nothing to do with Y?ld?r?m—his website was rendered dark in Turkey. So in January 2010, he took the case to the European Court, claiming that Turkey had violated Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which guarantees everyone the right to freedom of expression.

The European Court of Human Rights found that Turkish law did not allow for "wholesale blocking of access" to a host like Google Sites, and Google Sites had not even been informed that it was hosting "illegal" content in the first place.

Turkey has a sordid history of Internet censorship. This includes the banning of YouTube for a majority of time since March 2007. The ban was finally lifted a few years later when YouTube agreed to take down certain videos that ran counter to Turkish law, and just a few months ago, YouTube was relaunched in the country under a Turkish domain. This effectively has given the government more say over what content is permissible on the site. Last year, there was also the launch of a voluntary filtering system in the country, which incited a number of protests.

We hope Turkey heeds the European Court's decision and unblocks Google Sites. The Court was very clear that censorship of any kind requires deep thought, foresight, and a strict legal framework. And while we do not condone censorship of any kind, it is obvious that Turkey's actions went well beyond the Human Rights Convention's guidelines and directly abused its people's right to freedom of expression.

 

DECEMBER 10, 2012 | BY JILLIAN C. YORK
A Reminder: Online Free Speech is a Matter of Human Rights

If, just a few short decades ago, someone had proposed that the Internet would be instrumental in the promotion and maintenance of human rights around the world, their proposal would have been met with skepticism. And yet, examples of Internet users campaigning for human rights abound: From the Take Back the Tech campaign to end violence against women to the global response to speech-limiting bills like SOPA and PIPA and to new projects like WeFightCensorship.org, the role of the Internet in the promotion of human rights is growing.

But while the spread of the Internet has created an environment in which—in theory—anyone can be a writer, a photographer, a filmmaker, or a pundit, the reality is such that nearly half of the world's citizens access a fractured, fragmented Internet, and the threat of persecution for speaking out causes even more to censor their online speech. And the threats are increasing: Governments are ratcheting up Internet censorship, member countries of a UN body are fighting for more control of global networks, and reports of covert online surveillance abound. The Internet is great for the promotion of human rights, but human rights on the Internet are not always protected.

In a landmark 2011 report, UN Special Rapporteur on freedom of expression Frank LaRue called attention to the role of the Internet in enabling individuals the world over to exercise their rights to freedom of opinion, expression, and assembly. NGOs and governments alike have heeded LaRue's call in promoting these rights, but their fight continues as powerful forces seek to enact more control over our online actions.

Today, on International Human Rights Day, EFF would like to take the opportunity to remind our readers that the right to free expression must be guaranteed whether we're shouting from the rooftops or from our Facebook walls. We'd also like to share a few impassioned arguments for free expression online (and off) from our friends and colleagues around the web:MDAR
European Human Rights Court Finds Turkey in Violation of Freedom of Expression

The European Court of Human Rights decided today that, unsurprisingly, Turkey had violated their citizoogle.com.

Turkish law prohibits any insult towards Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the nation, as well as any general insult towards "Turkishness." This form of censorship has led, as one might expect, to some examples of egregious government overreach.

In 2009, a criminal court in Turkey issued an order to block a website that allegedly insulted Atatürk. The Turkish Telecommunications and Electronic Data Authority carried out the order by—wait for it—blocking sites.google.com in its entirety.

Along came Ahmet Y?ld?r?m, who used Google Sites to publish a personal blog and host academic papers. And then—because of a case that had nothing to do with Y?ld?r?m—his website was rendered dark in Turkey. So in January 2010, he took the case to the European Court, claiming that Turkey had violated Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which guarantees everyone the right to freedom of expression.

The European Court of Human Rights found that Turkish law did not allow for "wholesale blocking of access" to a host like Google Sites, and Google Sites had not even been informed that it was hosting "illegal" content in the first place.

Turkey has a sordid history of Internet censorship. This includes the banning of YouTube for a majority of time since March 2007. The ban was finally lifted a few years later when YouTube agreed to take down certain videos that ran counter to Turkish law, and just a few months ago, YouTube was relaunched in the country under a Turkish domain. This effectively has given the government more say over what content is permissible on the site. Last year, there was also the launch of a voluntary filtering system in the country, which incited a number of protests.

We hope Turkey heeds the European Court's decision and unblocks Google Sites. The Court was very clear that censorship of any kind requires deep thought, foresight, and a strict legal framework. And while we do not condone censorship of any kind, it is obvious that Turkey's actions went well beyond the Human Rights Convention's guidelines and directly abused its people's right to freedom of expression.
 

DECEMBER 10, 2012 | BY JILLIAN C. YORK
A Reminder: Online Free Speech is a Matter of Human Rights

If, just a few short decades ago, someone had proposed that the Internet would be instrumental in the promotion and maintenance of human rights around the world, their proposal would have been met with skepticism. And yet, examples of Internet users campaigning for human rights abound: From the Take Back the Tech campaign to end violence against women to the global response to speech-limiting bills like SOPA and PIPA and to new projects like WeFightCensorship.org, the role of the Internet in the promotion of human rights is growing.

But while the spread of the Internet has created an environment in which—in theory—anyone can be a writer, a photographer, a filmmaker, or a pundit, the reality is such that nearly half of the world's citizens access a fractured, fragmented Internet, and the threat of persecution for speaking out causes even more to censor their online speech. And the threats are increasing: Governments are ratcheting up Internet censorship, member countries of a UN body are fighting for more control of global networks, and reports of covert online surveillance abound. The Internet is great for the promotion of human rights, but human rights on the Internet are not always protected.

In a landmark 2011 report, UN Special Rapporteur on freedom of expression Frank LaRue called attention to the role of the Internet in enabling individuals the world over to exercise their rights to freedom of opinion, expression, and assembly. NGOs and governments alike have heeded LaRue's call in promoting these rights, but their fight continues as powerful forces seek to enact more control over our online actions.

Today, on International Human Rights Day, EFF would like to take the opportunity to remind our readers that the right to free expression must be guaranteed whether we're shouting from the rooftops or from our Facebook walls. We'd also like to share a few impassioned arguments for free expression online (and off) from our friends and colleagues around the web:

A Day for Free Expression, Online and Off
On Human Rights Day, make your voice heard on impunity
Human Rights Day 2012: 20 Powerful Moments in Human Rights Video

Subject English
Due By (Pacific Time) 06/29/2013 11:00 pm
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