Project #84704 - Psychology responses

1. Addiction is considered a brain disorder because the effects of the drug cause your brain to function in an abnormal way; whereas, a bad habit does not alter your brain’s normal methods of function. The brain thickness of cocaine addicts, overall, has actually been shown to be a similar thickness that is thinner than average; additionally, normal brain structures vary in thickness, suggesting that people may have a genetic predisposition to addiction (Cell Press, 2008).

Dopamine in a neurotransmitter that is synthesized in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) before it travels to the nucleus accumbens for production before heading out to the prefrontal cortex (Dubuc, 2002). In normal brain function, dopamine determines the saliency of an interaction, e.g. the better the food tastes the more dopamine your brain releases. Dopamine influences memory and motivation (the purpose behind the saliency), which when enacted turn into desire, i.e. salient → memory/motivation → desire. On a side note, exercise increases both dopamine production and the number of D2 receivers (D2R) that improve the efficiency to the neurotransmitter (McGowan, 2004).

Now if dopamine was the neurotransmitter of the day, serotonin would be the neurotransmitter of the night, i.e. the proverbial yin yang engagement. Where dopamine controls cravings, serotonin dictates satisfaction/fulfillment; where serotonin dictates inhibition, dopamine demands motivation; ergo, due to their opposing nature, the presence of one of these two neurotransmitters suppresses the other (Dubuc, 2002).

Now there is an issue here, people who are genetically tolerant to dopamine, i.e. have fewer D2Rs, hold a heightened potential to abuse drugs. This is because drugs that effect dopamine levels tent to be agonists—they increase the release of dopamine five to ten times the normal level. Because this increase in dopamine production occurs through the nucleus accumbens the drug becomes, to the addict, the most important thing in the world. With addicts, their prefrontal cortex (PFC)—the area of the brain that is associated with judgment and inhibitory control—stops function properly. Combine this with the suppression of serotonin and the addict gets the feeling they wished for from the dopamine, but is never satisfied due to the lack of serotonin, and they cannot rationalize their situation due to an abnormally functioning PFC (Dubuc, 2002; McGowan, 2004).

Because of the amount of dopamine being released being five to ten times the normal level, memories of the drug become highly salient; in turn, producing a strong Pavlovian conditioning in which seeing reminders of the drug will produce a craving that is five to ten times that of a normal craving. Does it stops there? No. The amygdala reacts to the increases in dopamine by releasing pleasurable emotions throughout the body, but at the cost of terror when the dopamine drops back to normal levels and the locus coeruleus—the brain’s alarm center—alerts the amygdala of the threat of lowered dopamine levels; which, the hippocampus remembers the experiences of terror in the long-term so the cognition can actively avoid having to go through that experience again (operant conditioning) (Dubuc, 2002).

A part of the limbic system that is associated with pleasure seeking becomes involved the insular cortex (insula). The insula is interesting because it involves so many emotions that are associated with the duality of drug use. The insula has direct input, via the brainstem, of the majority of the bodily sense neurons. The insula is a wellspring of social emotion as well as being associated with the development of higher emotions, and it is the frontal insula that generates both positive and negative social emotions are experiences by drug abusers: love and hate, gratitude and resentment, truthfulness and deception, etc. It is the insula that makes addicts ashamed and humiliated with themselves, which adds to the operant conditioning that turns into a continuation of the drug use. Additionally, it is the insula that anticipates the cravings for a drug which turn into the user’s inability to look away from, or an extended period of time staring at, the object of their affection (Blakeslee, 2007).

 

2. What is the most compelling evidence for you that schizophrenia and depression are disorders of the brain?

The most compelling evidence that depression is a disorder of the brain is that abnormalities have been found in the noradrenaline and serotonin neurotransmitters as well as the structure of the brain itself. Unipolar depression abnormalities in the limbic hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis as well as recorded decreases in blood flow in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the cingulate cortex, and the basal ganglia (Gurd, Kischka, & Marshall, 2010).

While schizophrenia has been known to exhibit depressive emotions, the areas of the brain that are afflicted are far different. CT scans have shown abnormally large ventricles (fluid filled cavities). MRI scans reveal a reduction in the volume of the temporal lobe, while PET and fMRI show decreases in blood flow to the temporal lobe. The differences include abnormalities in both the medial and frontal temporal lobes. Additionally, other abnormalities associated with schizophrenia involve a reduction in hippocampus and amygdala complex volume. On the cellular level, changes have been noted that the distribution of brain of the number of brain cells which suggest that the disorder correlates with the development of the brain itself (Gurd, Kischka, & Marshall, 2010; Schizophrenia.com, 1999).

What treatment for these disorders do you feel most hopeful about, and how does this treatment address the physiological causes?

For depression, medication that regulates serotonin and noradrenaline (antidepressants) would be the best psychopharmacological response, but should be prescribed along with individual psychotherapy and/or psychosocial therapy, and family education, and self-help groups. The idea would be to rebuild and strengthen social connections and try to correct the issue of self-interest with reverting their efforts to other-interest.

Treating schizophrenia is a bit more involved because the symptoms not only include depression, but also a wide range of other psychotic impairments. The older treatments for schizophrenia (typical antipsychotic) were dopamine antagonists, which come with devastating side effects. Newer psychopharmacological treatments (atypical antipsychotic) focus on other neurotransmitter systems besides dopamine, and therefore the negative side effects associated are less severe. A common atypical medication is clozapine, although due to a serious potential side effect that reduces the number of white blood cells in your blood, clozapine should not be used over other atypical antipsychotic medication like risperidone or olanzapine. On top of medication, which should be taken constantly to reduce chances of relapsing into an episode, psychosocial therapy measures should also be implemented: rehabilitation helps the individual integrate back into society, individual psychotherapy educates the subject themselves to help keep them aligned, family education helps maintain the social support of the family, and self-help groups encourages stability through developing a social life (Gurd, Kischka, & Marshall, 2010; Schizophrenia.com, 1999).

References

Gurd, J., Kischka, U., & Marshall, J. (2010). The Handbook of Clinical Neuropsychology. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199234110.001.0001

Schizophrenia.com. (1999). Overview of schizophrenia. Retrieved from Schizophrenia.com

 

Student 3

When you see the word "SEX", do you feel or think, nothing, pleasure, shame, guilt, or have questions?  Explain.

 

When I see the word sex by itself with no other words or pictures influencing my thoughts, I feel pleasure or thoughts of pleasure. The word can mean different things and invoke several different responses. I enjoy the sexuality of the word SEX.   Of course then I have to wonder why that is what comes to mind first and not gender, and to that I don’t have a solid answer. The capitalization in the question drew more of the emotional response for me than having an intellectual thought of what sex could mean.  I have to say that generally I think of it more as an act first, then the possibility of a different meaning or connotation.  I can say there have been times in my life where shame and guilt may have been my answer to this question but right now in this moment, pleasure wins.

 

Student 4

What if you could change your sexual identity for 1 year would you do so? Why or why not?  Explain.

 

 

To be honest, when I think about this topic, there is two different thoughts came up.

If the words ‘change of sexual identity’ refers only “content” of me (like mental), I would say NO. I am pretty open mind to homosexuality and have gay friends. However, there is no reason to be changed, cause I am satiated being a man and with the relationship with my wife. I am happy and love the way I am.

I respect women, and personally acknowledge women are the most sublime and beautiful creatures/creations of God in the world.

If I could totally change both my biophysical sex and appearance into the opposite for temporarily, I would say YES. It sounds like a life time lapse/aberration that could be really fun experience. Moreover, this time would help me to understand them, women, in many ways.For example, hormonal changes due to fall under a magic monthly and/or physically be prepared to be a mother (that are men never experience). It is always a picture is worth a thousand words. We all know there are tons of differences between men and women, and people try hard to understand the other such as reading a book like Men are from Mars and women from Venus by John Gray. But this one year could be the easiest way to learn A to Z about women.

 

Student 5.

There was definitely a difference in each speech. I honestly never listed to either until the couple days.

The speech by President Obama was very much written with more communitarian phrases than the Ryan Speech. With Obama's speech there were a lot of comments regarding the nation as a whole, and what was been accomplished so far during the previous four years of his presidency. He used the term "we" and "everyone" in just about every subject he talked about.

The Ryan speech from the beginning just came across as more of an attack on what Obama has or hasn't done in regards to hurting the country. I feel like at least the first 10-15 minutes of the speech did nothing but talk about what he did or what Romney did, and very little about what they could do for the community/nation. To me is seemed very individualist, self-centered.

 

Student 6 

Paul Ryan identifies individualistic versus referencing small town America and the people, the importance to hold to this. He speaks of his same parish he has been a member since he was baptized.  He speaks of his small town "I live on the same block I grew up"  Paul Ryan. Election 2012/Paul Ryan's RNC Speech/The New York Times. You Tube. Web. Aug 20, 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bNQ1KyaXa1A

Paul Ryan philosophy of governing is a smaller government and to focus more on the small towns, the place where America started. The peoples beliefs, rights and diversity.  So many small towns are loosing jobs with broken promises from the federal government and their involvement where it should not be.

President Barack Obama's individualistic versus referencing the economy, jobs, energy, peace "decisions that will have an huge impact on our lives and of our children"  President Barack Obama.  President Barack Obama's Remarks at the 2012 Democratic National Convention-Full Speech. You Tube.  Web. Sept 6, 2012.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2rl8Ou84s5U

Hard work from everyone from across the board will impact America.  Values across all diversities from Wall Street to the factory worker is valued and the economy is an important issue to resolve.  The challenge will be hard but spoke to the audience in confidence that it can be done.   

To be honest, when I think about this topic, there is two different thoughts came up.

If the words ‘change of sexual identity’ refers only “content” of me (like mental), I would say NO. I am pretty open mind to homosexuality and have gay friends. However, there is no reason to be changed, cause I am satiated being a man and with the relationship with my wife. I am happy and love the way I am.

I respect women, and personally acknowledge women are the most sublime and beautiful creatures/creations of God in the world.

 

If I could totally change both my biophysical sex and appearance into the opposite for temporarily, I would say YES. It sounds like a life time lapse/aberration that could be really fun experience. Moreover, this time would help me to understand them, women, in many ways.For example, hormonal changes due to fall under a magic monthly and/or physically be prepared to be a mother (that are men never experience). It is always a picture is worth a thousand words. We all know there are tons of differences between men and women, and people try hard to understand the other such as reading a book like Men are from Mars and women from Venus by John Gray. But this one year could be the easiest way to learn A to Z about women.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Subject English
Due By (Pacific Time) 10/03/2015 12:00 am
Report DMCA
TutorRating
pallavi

Chat Now!

out of 1971 reviews
More..
amosmm

Chat Now!

out of 766 reviews
More..
PhyzKyd

Chat Now!

out of 1164 reviews
More..
rajdeep77

Chat Now!

out of 721 reviews
More..
sctys

Chat Now!

out of 1600 reviews
More..
sharadgreen

Chat Now!

out of 770 reviews
More..
topnotcher

Chat Now!

out of 766 reviews
More..
XXXIAO

Chat Now!

out of 680 reviews
More..
All Rights Reserved. Copyright by AceMyHW.com - Copyright Policy