Project #84736 - Psychology

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Focus on internal and external locust of control. External locust of control is categorized as "interpreting the consequences of behavior to be determined by luck, fate, or powerful others" (Hock, 2012). If people interpret their own choices and personality as responsible for their behavioral consequence, they are said to have an internal locust of control" (Hock, 2013) . "Rotter explained that a person's tendency to view events from an internal, versus an external, locust of control is fundamental to who we are and can be explained from a social learning theory perspective" (Hock, 2013). Rotter believes that a person's behavior in any given situation is learned through reinforcement, or reward, and predicted a test could measure an a person's internal or external locust of control. He designed a test (the I-E scale) that contained statements pertaining to either an internal locust of control or an external locust of control. This scale is still used today and is known for predicting behaviors across a variety of situations. 

     Reading 26 deals with androgyny and the feeling of being male or female even though your biological makeup says different. In this case a male may appear male and like to do masculine activities but may have emotions and tendencies that may be thought of as being feminine. Bem developed a Likert scale that contained desired "masculine" and "feminine" items and subjects picked the items that they best felt suited them. Your score was then calculated and by subtracting the feminine score from the male score which gives your androgyny score. On the scale you were deemed high or low feminine, or high or low masculine. "This study by Sandra Bem changed psychology because it altered the way psychologists, individuals, and entire societies view one of the most basic human characteristics: gender identity" (Hock, 2013). 

     The tenet in Reading 29 discusses "normal" vs. "abnormal", and the definition is crucial to who is considered to be mentally ill, or sane and has to do with the treatment the patient gets. There are various criteria used when determining if a person is normal or abnormal and Rosenhan wanted to see if people were actually having psychological episodes or situations or was it just the observers opinion of what they saw at the time. He used a study that contained eight individuals that basically pretended to be mentally ill and had them do things to obtain admission and discharge from a mental facility by themselves. "Rosenhan's study demonstrated that even trained professionals often cannot distinguish the normal from the mentally ill in a hospital setting" (Hock, 2013). This study increases the psychological world's awareness of the people around them and helps us to understand mental disorders even more, especially for diagnostic purposes. 

Hock, R. (2013). Forty Studies that Changed Psychology. 7th ed. Pearson Education Inc.

 

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