Project #85474 - Critical Analysis of Paper - 3 Paragraphs

Personally critique the following paper (below). Three (or more) paragraphs with three sources total to back up your response. Your points can be opposing or concurrance, I would prefer some of both. 

APA Format. DO NOT WRITE A RESEARCH PAPER, PLEASE! This is a personal discussion response. Let me know if you have questions.




There are individuals and criminal organizations in the United States and abroad who take advantage of the Internet’s accessibility to information to obtain unauthorized, illegal and unfettered entrée to the personal and classified information of millions of private citizens and companies. Even worse, there are cybercriminals all over the world who use the autonomy, availability and anonymity of the Internet to commit a multitude of serious and horrendous crimes (Nale, 2012). In addition to unauthorized access, interference and damage to computer systems, cybercrimes are “traditional” crimes such as fraud, identity theft, extortion, child pornography, prostitution, theft, drug trafficking, and human trafficking, but carried out much faster, on a much larger scale and affecting many more victims (Broadhurst, 2006). Director of National Intelligence James Clapper predicts that “such malicious cyber activity will continue and probably accelerate until we establish and demonstrate the capability to deter malicious state-sponsored cyber activity" (Reuters, 2015).

Foreign and domestic cybercriminals operate in well-organized, efficient and scalable systems that enable them to infiltrate and attack innumerable individuals and organizations from anywhere in the world (Threat Metrix, 2013). As cybercriminal organizations function in unified networks, however, organizations and governments are attempting to detect, prevent and combat their illegal activities through disconnected, inefficient and uncoordinated means (Threat Metrix, 2013).

Cybercrime knows no borders and the response to combating it requires the removal of existing barriers between governments, international police agencies and private industry to pool resources and share information to strengthen cybersecurity efforts (Acumin, 2014). Even in technologically advanced countries, well-established domestic and international policing methods are rendered useless by computer related crimes (Broadhurst, 2006). Every country in the world is home to both cybercriminals and victims of cybercrime. Cybercrime is a global crisis that requires a coordinated and focused global approach to combat the problem.

The Business Need for Global Cooperation

          As a 2014 study by the Center for Strategic and International Studies stated, cybercrime is a “growth industry… (where) the returns are great and the risks are low” (McAfee, 2014). The chances of being caught and convicted are so slim that educated, skillful and under-employed computer programmers are more than willing to gamble (Bukh, 2014).

As long as the cybercriminals are only targeting foreigners, many governments are content to sit back and let them hone the skills needed to exploit computer and network vulnerabilities (Bukh, 2015). Those governments will then use those refined tools and skills to conduct their own cyber espionage and computer terrorism (Bukh, 2015).

Ten countries accounted for seventy-five percent of the world's cyber-assault traffic in 2012 (Milian, 2013). China generated forty-one percent of those cyber-attacks, making it the number one source of cyber assaults in 2012 (Milian, 2013). Although the government and its state-controlled media deny any involvement in international cybercrimes, an extensive and sophisticated cybercriminal network with ties to China’s military has been discovered (Milian, 2013).)

Despite President Obama reaching an agreement with China’s president Xi Jinping that neither government would support cyber theft or espionage of corporate information or intellectual property, James Clapper is skeptical that Chinese cyber-attacks will stop (Reuters, 2015). Clapper stated that Chinese cyber-attacks targeting U.S companies’ corporate secrets are so widespread that he doubts the “common understanding” will do much to curb the onslaught (Reuters, 2015). Clapper and other top U.S. military officials said cyber threats by countries such as China, Russia, North Korea and Iran are increasing in “frequency, scale, sophistication and severity” and are expanding to include data manipulation (Reuters, 2015).

President Obama said, “Cyber threats pose one of the most serious economic and national security challenges to the United States,” (Guardian, 2015). At least forty American companies including Apple, Facebook and Twitter have been attacked by cybercriminal groups in Russia and Eastern Europe (Milian, 2013). Sony Pictures was the victim of a high-profile cyber-attack allegedly carried out by North Korea (Guardian, 2015). And according to FBI Director James Comey, Chinese cybercriminals have hacked every major U.S. company and large numbers of defense contractors (Cook, 2014).

In today’s global economy, not only are American companies doing business overseas, they also have offices, factories and service centers located abroad as well. High-profile corporations such as, Google, Oracle, Microsoft, Apple, Amazon and Priceline all have dozens of locations in foreign countries such as China, India, Brazil, Mexico and Israel (Hoovers, 2015). Each of these foreign locations is another source of vulnerability and potential exploitation by international cybercriminals.

McAfee estimates the annual costs of cybercrime to the global economy to be more than $400 billion dollars; more than the national incomes of many countries (McAfee, 2014). This is in spite of the fact that governments and organizations are spending more than ever before on cybersecurity (Gartner, 2013). Clearly the answer to the problem is not to throw more money at it.

Cooperative Efforts on a Global Scale

According to James Clapper, preventing cybercrime “requires agreement on norms of cyber behavior by the international community” (Reuters, 2015). What is also desperately needed is a coordinated and complete global response to proactively address the security challenges of cyberspace (Broadhurst, 2006). Countries need to engage in trans-national policing and strive to create a “seamless web of enforcement” against cybercrime (Broadhurst, 2006). If countries can adopt adequate and reliable cybercrime laws then it will be easier to conduct international cybercrime investigations and extradite and prosecute cybercriminals (Broadhurst, 2006). There are several multi-nation organizations working toward that goal.

International Convention on Cybercrime

The Council of Europe’s International Convention on Cybercrime ( is the first international treaty to address cybercrime by standardizing laws, enhancing investigative methods, and expanding collaboration among countries (COE, n.d.). As of 2015 forty-seven nations, including the United States, have ratified the convention and a total of fifty-four countries have signed it (COE, n.d.). Its primary goal is to work toward common definitions of cybercrimes, standards for cyber behavior and universal criminal policy focused on protecting the world’s citizens from cybercrime (COE, n.d.). Senator Bill Frist stated, “While balancing civil liberty and privacy concerns, this treaty encourages the sharing of critical electronic evidence among foreign countries so that law enforcement can more effectively investigate and combat these crimes" (AP, 2006).


The International Multilateral Partnership against Cyber Threats (IMPACT) was created in 2011 and is backed by the United Nations (ITU, 2015). IMPACT ( is the largest cybersecurity coalition of its kind and counts one hundred fifty-two countries as members (IMPACT, 2015). IMPACT also receives support from leading industry leaders, academic, research and international organizations (ITU, 2015). Through public, private, and government collaboration it strives to deliver education, training, information, services and solutions to address cyber threats around the world (ITU, 2015). Its Global Response Centre is both a resource and quick reaction center for the detection and identification of cyber threats and sharing of information and resources to help its members (IMPACT, 2015). The other sections within IMPACT are the Centre for Policy & International Cooperation, Centre for Training & Skills Development and Centre for Security Assurance & Research (IMPACT, 2015).


The Interpol Global Complex for Innovation (IGCI) ( is a research and development center located in Singapore. Its mission is to provide cutting-edge innovations in the areas of crime and criminal identification, training, operational support and international policing partnerships (INTERPOL, 2015). It focuses on three areas: digital security, capacity building and training, and operational and investigative support (INTERPOL, 2015). The digital security component of IGCI aims to boost cybersecurity, thwart cybercrime, develop and refine digital forensics, analyze cybercrime trends, test protocols, tools and services, address Internet security governance and work with law enforcement, researchers, academia, public and private organizations to develop real-world cyberthreats solutions (INTERPOL, 2015).


The proliferation of computer systems, hardware, software, the Internet, mobile devices, and digital information has created unprecedented economic growth, opportunity, and prosperity around the world (ITIC, 2011). At the same time, however, the global, interrelated, and anonymous nature of computers and the Internet has created a target-rich environment for criminals (ITIC, 2011). In the absence of international organizations or agreements to combat cybercrime, there are several best cybersecurity practices that global businesses can adopt to defend against cyber threats.

The World Economic Forum issued a report which stated that failure to improve global cybersecurity could cost the world economy trillions of dollars and lead to an increase in cyber threats (Lennon, 2014). It recommends that organizations:

  • Base protection on importance of assets

  • Integrate security into IT environment

  • Use active defenses

  • Proactively detect attacks

  • Gather facts to make effective cybersecurity decisions (Lennon, 2014).

In addition to these recommendations, the Information Technology Industry Council provides six guiding principles for governments, private corporations and public organizations to follow as they collaborate to improve cybersecurity (ITIC, 2011). The ITIC states that attempts to improve cybersecurity must:

  •     Utilize public-private partnerships and take advantage of existing proposals and resources;
  •     Reflect the borderless, interconnected, and global character of modern cyberspace;
  •     Adapt quickly to evolving threats, technologies and business practices;
  •     Incorporate effective risk management;
  •     Focus on increasing public awareness, training and education;
  •     Concentrate more on cybercriminals and cyber threats (ITIC, 2011).


The task of increasing global cooperation to greatly improve cybersecurity and drastically reduce cyberthreats is a daunting but crucial one. Cybercrime is a booming business with minimal risk and maximum reward (McAfee, 2014). But the global economy is dependent on a secure interconnected global digital infrastructure (ITIC, 2011). It is up to global businesses that have the most to gain from a safe and secure cyberspace and the most to lose from the proliferation of cybercrime to foster global cooperation to address the challenges of cybersecurity.  


Acumin. (2014). The future of cyber security: A look ahead. Information Security Buzz. Retrieved from

AP. (2006). Senate ratifies treaty on cybercrime. USA Today. Retrieved from

Broadhurst, R. (2006). Developments in the global law enforcement of cyber-crime. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management. 29(2): pp. 408-433. Retrieved from

Bukh, A. (2015). The real cybercrime geography. Tech Crunch. Retrieved from

COE. (n.d.). Convention on Cybercrime. Budapest, 23.XI.2001. Council of Europe. Retrieved from

Cook, J. (2014). FBI Director: China has hacked every big US company. Business Insider. Retrieved from

Gartner. (2013). Gartner says worldwide security market to grow 8.7 percent in 2013. Gartner. Retrieved from

Guardian. (2015). Obama targets foreign hackers and state-owned companies over cyber-attacks. The Guardian. Retrieved from

Hoovers. (2015). Company information. Hoovers. Retrieved from

IMPACT. (2015). Retrieved from

INTERPOL. (2015). The INTERPOL global complex for innovation. INTERPOL. Retrieved from

ITIC. (2011). The IT industry’s cybersecurity principles for industry and government. Information Technology Industry Council. Retrieved from

ITU. (2015). ITU-IMPACT. ITU. Retrieved from

Lennon, M. (2014). Improved cyber security could save global economy trillions: World economic forum. Security Week. Retrieved from

McAfee. (2014). Estimating the global cost of cybercrime. Economic impact of cybercrime II.

Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved from

Milian, M. (2013). Top ten hacking countries. Bloomberg Business. Retrieved from

Nale, S. (2012). The 10 most common internet crimes. Complex. Retrieved from

Reuters. (2015). Top American spy skeptical about U.S.-China cyber hacking deal. Newsweek. Retrieved from

Threat Metrix. (2013). Combating cybercrime – a collective global response. Threat Metrix. Retrieved from CombatingCybercrimeWhitepaper.pdf


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