Project #85964 - Psychology

 

 

Write a synopsis on the discussion below 200 words (must include refernces):

 

 

 

 

In chapter 10: reading 37, social psychology is looking at your behaviors influenced by others, and other's behaviors influencing yours through human interaction. The first influential study relating to this line of work is by Philip Zimbardo and his associates. Zimbardo hypothesized that the environment around you (situations), can often determine how you behave more strongly than who you are called (internal dispositional nature) (Roger R. Hock, 2013). His theoretical position proposed that, although we have internal behavioral tendencies, powerful situations can overcome those tendencies, and lead us to engage in behaviors that contradict our self-norm(Roger R. Hock, 2013). During his procedure, he selected two participant groups; one being prisoners, and the other being guards(Roger R. Hock, 2013). In order to test his hypothesis, he observed, recorded, and analyzed the behavior of prisoners and guards(Roger R. Hock, 2013). The group of guards during the procedure were using; demeaning/degrading language, harassed the prisoner group, disturbed sleep during the nights for prison counts, denied bathroom breaks/buckets in cells, removed beds/took blankets, stripped prisoners, and so forth (Roger R. Hock, 2013). The group of prisoners during the procedure; became docile/subservient and conformed to guards rules, agreed to forfeit payment for release, experienced crying, rage, and disorganized thinking, gave up rebellion and solidarity, and after days became completely passive, dehumanized, and hopeless (Roger R. Hock, 2013). As Zimbardo hypothesized, the guard's personality norms vanished when role-playing occurred, especially the ones who enjoyed tormenting the prisoners (Roger R. Hock, 2013). Even other guards during role playing who were more lenient towards prisoners appeared to be submissive toward power influencing guards (Roger R. Hock, 2013). The study was one of the most profound and alarming as it was; researched, discussed, and analyzed studies in the history of psychology because it had helped explain the personality and behavioral changes that occurred in both guards and prisoners environmental (situational) influences transitional changes out of our norm (Roger R. Hock, 2013).

 

The second theoretical proposition, on the power of conformity is described in reading 38 by Enter Solomon Asch. It's noted that conformity is a powerful force on our behavior, and can at times cause us to behave in ways that, left to our own devices, we would never do (Roger R. Hock, 2013). Asch wanted to find out just how powerful the need to conform is in influencing our behaviors(Roger R. Hock, 2013). Asch chose to study the obvious type called perceptual conformity, which is the extent to which humans tend to conform with one another's perceptions of the world, based on what we see, hear, taste, smell and touch (the five senses)(Roger R. Hock, 2013). To support his hypothesis he provided a study using what's called the comparison lines (which one matched a standard line) in a visual perception study (Roger R. Hock, 2013). The participant of the study put in a room with a group of people (purposely would answer wrong) in order to see if the participant would conform to the same answer or not (Roger R. Hock, 2013). Based on his study 75% of each participant conformed at least once towards original group's incorrect answers(Roger R. Hock, 2013). One-third of all trials participants agreed to incorrect responses (Roger R. Hock, 2013). Asch's results were important to the field of psychology for two reasons; first being, the real power of social pressure to conform was demonstrated clearly and significantly for the first time; and secondly, early research sparked a huge wave of additional studies of the specific factors that determine the effects conformity has on our behavior such as; social support, attraction and commitment towards groups, group size, and sex (Roger R. Hock, 2013).

 

A third theoretical proposition in reading 40 is proposed by Stanley Milgram. Similar to Zimbardo's work on obedience, Milgram hypothesized that in some situations, the human tendency to obey is so deeply ingrained and powerful, that it cancels out a person's ability to behave morally, ethically, or even sympathetically (Roger R. Hock, 2013). His theoretical basis for his study was that humans have a tendency to obey other people who are in a position of authority over them, even if in obeying they violate their personal codes of moral and ethical behavior (Roger R. Hock, 2013). His method was to determine both obedient or defiant participants by using a shock generator labeling; slight shock, moderate shock, and severe shock (danger) to shock other participants (punishment of learning) when prompt by an actor of authority (Roger R. Hock, 2013). The authority figure would then use command codes such as; please continue, the experiment requires you to continue, it is absolutely necessary you continue, you have no other choice you must go on (Roger R. Hock, 2013). Conclusively, 65% followed the experimenter's orders and proceeded to the top of the shock scale (Roger R. Hock, 2013). His findings discovered two important key things; first being, the strength of participants (normal people) tendencies to obey; and the second, the extreme tension and anxiety that manifested by the participants as they obeyed the experimenter's commands (Roger R. Hock, 2013).

 

 

References

 

 

Roger R. Hock, P. (2013). Forty Studies That Changed Psychology: Explorations into the History of Psychological Research: Seventh Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. .

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