Project #87021 - Discussion Responces

Please respond to each posting 4 total

Paul Collier

As the domestic economies continue to grow, businesses are increasingly finding it necessary to sell in international markets in order to increase their market and make profits. Before managers of these businesses start examining international markets, they find it necessary to understand some of the major trends in the international business management. They have to understand these trends in order to take advantage of those that can favor their businesses. Given that international markets are changing rapidly, they can take advantage of these changes in order to create a niche for their businesses (Ghemawat, 2007). Therefore, international businesses managers are likely to encounter changes in innovation, communication, technology, and competition among many others. The main reason why businesses form alliances is to maximize economies of scale which enables them achieve goals that would otherwise be hard to achieve on their own. However, there are advantages and disadvantages associated with forming strategic alliances. The first and most fundamental benefits of forming strategic alliance are classified as economic advantages. Businesses are able to create larger economies of scale when they form alliances. On the other hand, these alliances require businesses to share resources. These resources include profits and knowledge (Matthew & Barnes, 2005). The main objective of forming global strategies is to manage the differences that arise at international market borders. However, those in charge of these implementations often fail to explore international markets (Ghemawat, 2007). International businesses use two main methods to measure the performance of global strategies. The two measures are those that focus on results and those that focus on factors that determine these results. Those that focus on results include financial performance and outputs. On the other hand, those that focuses on results measure resource utilization and flexibility. Christian business professionals may learn that religion does not determine whom to trade with.   References Ghemawat, P. (2007). Managing Differences: The Central Challenge of Global Strategy. Harvard Business Review. Matthew, H., & Barnes, D. (2005). Towards a Framework for Evaluating the Business Process Performance of E-Business Investments. International Journal of Business Performance Management 7, no. 1: 87. Serafio, J. (n.d). Ford Motor Company New Organizational Structure. Accessed from <http://creately.com/diagram/example/hovexab9/Ford%20Motor%20Company%20New%20Organizational%20Structure  
 


As the domestic economies continue to grow, businesses are increasingly finding it necessary to sell in international markets in order to increase their market and make profits. Before managers of these businesses start examining international markets, they find it necessary to understand some of the major trends in the international business management. They have to understand these trends in order to take advantage of those that can favor their businesses. Given that international markets are changing rapidly, they can take advantage of these changes in order to create a niche for their businesses (Ghemawat, 2007). Therefore, international businesses managers are likely to encounter changes in innovation, communication, technology, and competition among many others.

The main reason why businesses form alliances is to maximize economies of scale which enables them achieve goals that would otherwise be hard to achieve on their own. However, there are advantages and disadvantages associated with forming strategic alliances. The first and most fundamental benefits of forming strategic alliance are classified as economic advantages. Businesses are able to create larger economies of scale when they form alliances. On the other hand, these alliances require businesses to share resources. These resources include profits and knowledge (Matthew & Barnes, 2005).

The main objective of forming global strategies is to manage the differences that arise at international market borders. However, those in charge of these implementations often fail to explore international markets (Ghemawat, 2007). International businesses use two main methods to measure the performance of global strategies. The two measures are those that focus on results and those that focus on factors that determine these results. Those that focus on results include financial performance and outputs. On the other hand, those that focuses on results measure resource utilization and flexibility. Christian business professionals may learn that religion does not determine whom to trade with.

 

References

Ghemawat, P. (2007). Managing Differences: The Central Challenge of Global Strategy. Harvard Business Review.

Matthew, H., & Barnes, D. (2005). Towards a Framework for Evaluating the Business Process Performance of E-Business Investments. International Journal of Business Performance Management 7, no. 1: 87.

Serafio, J. (n.d). Ford Motor Company New Organizational Structure. Accessed from <http://creately.com/diagram/example/hovexab9/Ford%20Motor%20Company%20New%20Organizational%20Structure

 

 
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  • Lisa Corbin

    Lisa Corbin

    What trends do you see developing for international business managers? Both strategic alliances and joint ventures are a form of partnership. When considered on an international level, the risk of these partnerships increases. International business managers must evolve in order to successfully operate in an environment that is growing across the globe at an explosive rate (Deresky, 2014, pp. 216-217). What trends will take place among international business managers that will aid in this evolution? It often seems that the role of a manager is to guide and teach. While this maintains a level of truth, managers must also learn. Half of international strategic alliances have ended in failure (p. 216). Constant learning will enable managers to maintain the level of knowledge required to reach success in the international business world. Regina Phelps states, “This rapidly changing world means that people have to be constantly learning. Formal and informal education is critical for professional and personal life (2014, p. 8).” The trend of managers becoming learners in addition to teachers can bring a positive perspective to international management.   What are the advantages and disadvantages for the various types of alliances? A strategic alliance is a partnership between two or more firms that decide they can better pursue their mutual goals by combining their resources—financial, managerial, and technological—as well as their existing distinctive competitive advantages (Deresky, 2014, p. 216). There are multiple types of alliances, including joint ventures, equity strategic alliances, and non-equity strategic alliances (p. 216). The advantages of these alliances include: Rapid entrance into a new industry while avoiding barriers Reduced political risk Access to markets governed by domestic-favored regulations Shared cost and risk With advantages come disadvantages. Some disadvantages of alliances include: Tedious and complex process Potential of dissolution of weaker company Organizational issues: difference in culture, integration of systems, distribution of power Conflicting strategic goals (pp. 219-221) Despite the potential disadvantages of creating an alliance, alliances continue to develop due to the attractive advantages. What are some of the current challenges for implementing global strategies? Global strategies are required in order for a multinational company to maintain a competitive advantage (Yaprak, 2011, p. 184). In order to successfully implement global strategies, many variables must be aligned to create an interconnected system designed for the specific strategy (Deresky, 2014, p. 227). When striving to align these variables, companies may be challenged with successfully integrating and coordinating the details of the strategy. There are various factors that can limit the ability to integrate and coordinate, including cultural differences, conflicting goals, and weak management (Yaprak, 2011, pp. 184-186).   How can global strategies be measured for performance?   There are two perspective that can assist in measuring the success of global strategies. The first perspective is comparative. The success should be analyzed from a location-specific perspective. How does the company compare to competitors in the same country? Also, within the industry, which may be global, how does the company compare? The second perspective is competitive, or firm-specific. How does the company compare to itself in prior years (Yaprak, 2011, pp. 184-185)? Using location-specific and firm-specific measurements will set benchmarks for evaluating success.       As Christian business professionals, what faith implications are relevant to this topic? When considering alliances, I think of what it would take to ensure a healthy business alliance. In 1 Samuel, David is our example of building healthy alliances. As he is fleeing Saul, his loyalty and dedication to serving others enables him to build alliances that stood by him through many struggles. He built the trust of others and created relationships with invested individuals. From a business perspective, we need all of those qualities present in an alliance. Otherwise, there will come a time when the alliance is no longer being advanced but becomes a mediocre (or worse) situation.       References Deresky, H. (2014). International management: managing across borders and cultures. (8th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Phelps, R. (2014). Rethinking business continuity: Emerging trends in the profession and the manager's role. Journal Of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning, 8(1), 49-58. Yaprak, A., Shichun, X., & Cavusgil, E. (2011). Effective Global Strategy Implementation. Management International Review (MIR), 51(2), 179-192. doi:10.1007/s11575-011-0071-6    
     
  • What trends do you see developing for international business managers?

    Both strategic alliances and joint ventures are a form of partnership. When considered on an international level, the risk of these partnerships increases. International business managers must evolve in order to successfully operate in an environment that is growing across the globe at an explosive rate (Deresky, 2014, pp. 216-217). What trends will take place among international business managers that will aid in this evolution? It often seems that the role of a manager is to guide and teach. While this maintains a level of truth, managers must also learn. Half of international strategic alliances have ended in failure (p. 216). Constant learning will enable managers to maintain the level of knowledge required to reach success in the international business world. Regina Phelps states, “This rapidly changing world means that people have to be constantly learning. Formal and informal education is critical for professional and personal life (2014, p. 8).” The trend of managers becoming learners in addition to teachers can bring a positive perspective to international management.

     

    What are the advantages and disadvantages for the various types of alliances?

    A strategic alliance is a partnership between two or more firms that decide they can better pursue their mutual goals by combining their resources—financial, managerial, and technological—as well as their existing distinctive competitive advantages (Deresky, 2014, p. 216). There are multiple types of alliances, including joint ventures, equity strategic alliances, and non-equity strategic alliances (p. 216). The advantages of these alliances include:

    • Rapid entrance into a new industry while avoiding barriers
    • Reduced political risk
    • Access to markets governed by domestic-favored regulations
    • Shared cost and risk

    With advantages come disadvantages. Some disadvantages of alliances include:

    • Tedious and complex process
    • Potential of dissolution of weaker company
    • Organizational issues: difference in culture, integration of systems, distribution of power
    • Conflicting strategic goals (pp. 219-221)

    Despite the potential disadvantages of creating an alliance, alliances continue to develop due to the attractive advantages.

    What are some of the current challenges for implementing global strategies?

    Global strategies are required in order for a multinational company to maintain a competitive advantage (Yaprak, 2011, p. 184). In order to successfully implement global strategies, many variables must be aligned to create an interconnected system designed for the specific strategy (Deresky, 2014, p. 227). When striving to align these variables, companies may be challenged with successfully integrating and coordinating the details of the strategy. There are various factors that can limit the ability to integrate and coordinate, including cultural differences, conflicting goals, and weak management (Yaprak, 2011, pp. 184-186).  

    How can global strategies be measured for performance?  

    There are two perspective that can assist in measuring the success of global strategies. The first perspective is comparative. The success should be analyzed from a location-specific perspective. How does the company compare to competitors in the same country? Also, within the industry, which may be global, how does the company compare? The second perspective is competitive, or firm-specific. How does the company compare to itself in prior years (Yaprak, 2011, pp. 184-185)? Using location-specific and firm-specific measurements will set benchmarks for evaluating success.      

    As Christian business professionals, what faith implications are relevant to this topic?

    When considering alliances, I think of what it would take to ensure a healthy business alliance. In 1 Samuel, David is our example of building healthy alliances. As he is fleeing Saul, his loyalty and dedication to serving others enables him to build alliances that stood by him through many struggles. He built the trust of others and created relationships with invested individuals. From a business perspective, we need all of those qualities present in an alliance. Otherwise, there will come a time when the alliance is no longer being advanced but becomes a mediocre (or worse) situation.      

    References

    Deresky, H. (2014). International management: managing across borders and cultures. (8th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

    Phelps, R. (2014). Rethinking business continuity: Emerging trends in the profession and the manager's role. Journal Of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning, 8(1), 49-58.

    Yaprak, A., Shichun, X., & Cavusgil, E. (2011). Effective Global Strategy Implementation. Management International Review (MIR), 51(2), 179-192. doi:10.1007/s11575-011-0071-6

    PLEASE RESPOND TO THIS POSTING

     Discuss the challenges and advantages of a transnational organization/structure.

    The organization and structure of a transnational company is absolutely critical to its success.  Deresky (2013) writes, “the structure must “fit” the strategy, or it will not work” (p. 243).  The challenge to crafting this type of structure is that is must be fluid because analyze variables like strategy, size, and technology at a given point (p. 243).  This is often hard to figure out because of the international complexities of things like language, attitudes, and business practices.  

    But just like this is a challenge to have have a fluid and evolving structure, it can also be considered an advantage.  Internalization is a process where “ firm gradually changes in response to international competition, domestic market saturation, and the desire for expansion, new markets, and diversification” (Deresky, 2013, p. 248).  The firm has the opportunity to grow its organizational structure as the business evolves or gets deeper within international relations.  It provides a chance to “redesign the organizational structure to optimize the strategy’s chances to work, making changes in the firm’s tasks and relationships and designating authority, responsibility, lines of communication, geographic dispersal of units, and so forth” (p. 248).  Essentially, having a fluid structure allows the organization to be responsive to whatever comes its way.  

     

    • Read 2 Samuel 23:8 - 39 and note how David structured his fighting force to serve his purposes.

    David structured his men in the places where they would thrive.  In essence, they were in areas which would play to these individuals strengths.  He fostered a deep sense of trust in these men and they were deeply committed to him likewise.  He also picked me that were not afraid to stand their ground.  

     

    • Select a global company and describe its organizational structure, and how its structure might serve its purpose.

     


    CEO

    COO-management of regions, in addition to government affairs, manufacturing, research and development, purchasing, product planning, design, and marketing and sales

    CRO-lead the company's ongoing recovery activities, and he also assumes responsibility for the corporate planning and control functions. Dodge is leading the newly created region encompassing Africa, the Middle East, India and Europe

    CFO

    Exec VP-North, Central and South America markets

       

    Exec VP- Japan, China and the Asia-Pacific markets, purchasing, and company's affiliates

       

    Senior VP-responsibility for product planning, the Infiniti business unit, the Light Commercial Vehicle business unit and the electric vehicle business unit

     

    (Nissan, n.d.)



    The table above shows the operating structure that Nissan took on when the economic crisis in 2009 happened.  Their organization was structured around a global geographic structure at that time.  A number of positions had been eliminated and condensed down (Nissan, n.d.).  This type of structure allows for managers to focus on the needs of their regions.  Nissan also utilizes cross-functional teams to work across regional and divisional lines to solve problems and work out inefficiencies (Goshen, 2002).  

     

    • Assess how effective the company is in the way its structure serves its purpose.

     

    In true bare bones fashion like many companies during the tough times in 2009, Nissan downsized its organization.  At the time, this served the company well, however in 2013 it restructured again to promote further growth.  It further broke down regional areas to allow more focus to be put on these areas.  Essentially, the 2009 geographic areas were too large and diverse for one person to oversee.  New goals were set to meet the company’s mid term plans for market share, presence, and profitability (Chappell, 2013).  

     

    Reference

     

    Chappell, L. (2013, May 6). Nissan retools management structure for global growth. Retrieved October 14, 2015.

    Deresky, H. (2013-01-01). International Management: Managing Across Borders and Cultures, Text and Cases, 8th Edition. [VitalSource Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781269896344/ (Links to an external site.)

    Goshen, C. (2002). Saving the Business Without Losing the Company. Retrieved October 14, 2015.

    NISSAN | NISSAN TAKES FURTHER ACTION AMID GLOBAL CRISIS. (n.d.). Retrieved October 14, 2015.

     
    Please respond to this POSTING.     
     
  •  
    Stefanie Smith

    Stefanie Smith

    One advantage of a transnational structure is the use of the horizontal organization in the pursuit of transnational capability… Thus, this structure is less a matter of boxes on an organizational chart and more a matter of a network of the company’s units and their system of horizontal communication. This involves lateral communication across networks of units and alliances rather than in a hierarchy. The system requires the dispersal of responsibility and decision making to local subsidiaries and alliances. The effectiveness of that localized decision-making depends a great deal on the ability and willingness to share current and new learning and technology across the network of units. The matrix structure typical of the transnational company creates a complex coordination and control system as it attempts to combine: • The capabilities and resources of a multinational corporation • The economies of scale of a global corporation • The local responsiveness of a domestic company • The ability to transfer technology efficiently typical of the international structure42 Page 257 There isn’t a hierarchy involved in this type of structure however it is still complex with challenges, but being able to disperse a lot of the responsibility is a great advantage!   David’s organizational structure was God, and he had three mighty warriors by his side. 8 These are the names of the mighty men whom David had: Josheb-basshebeth a Tahchemonite; he was chief of the three.[e] He wielded his spear[f] against eight hundred whom he killed at one time. 9 And next to him among the three mighty men was Eleazar the son of Dodo, son of Ahohi. He was with David when they defied the Philistines who were gathered there for battle, and the men of Israel withdrew. 10 He rose and struck down the Philistines until his hand was weary, and his hand clung to the sword. And the Lord brought about a great victory that day, and the men returned after him only to strip the slain. 11 And next to him was Shammah, the son of Agee the Hararite. The Philistines gathered together at Lehi, where there was a plot of ground full of lentils, and the men fled from the Philistines. 12 But he took his stand in the midst of the plot and defended it and struck down the Philistines, and the Lord worked a great victory.   https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=2+Samuel+23&version=ESV     Exxon Mobil Exxon is clearly meeting their purpose with 37 oil refineries in 21 countries producing a total combined of  6.3 Million barrels daily. In the chart below, you will see that they are #1 in their industry. There structure is great with top leaders, however, I wonder if each facility places concern on climate change and environmental factors? ***Click on links to view the charts.  http://si.wsj.net/public/resources/images/BA-AR197A_exxon_NS_20091114010422.gif   http://www.heiferphils.org/finaldraft/graphics/org-chart.jpg      
     

    One advantage of a transnational structure is the use of the horizontal organization in the pursuit of transnational capability…

    Thus, this structure is less a matter of boxes on an organizational chart and more a matter of a network of the company’s units and their system of horizontal communication. This involves lateral communication across networks of units and alliances rather than in a hierarchy. The system requires the dispersal of responsibility and decision making to local subsidiaries and alliances. The effectiveness of that localized decision-making depends a great deal on the ability and willingness to share current and new learning and technology across the network of units. The matrix structure typical of the transnational company creates a complex coordination and control system as it attempts to combine:

    Page 257

    There isn’t a hierarchy involved in this type of structure however it is still complex with challenges, but being able to disperse a lot of the responsibility is a great advantage!

     

    David’s organizational structure was God, and he had three mighty warriors by his side.

    These are the names of the mighty men whom David had: Josheb-basshebeth a Tahchemonite; he was chief of the three.[e (Links to an external site.)] He wielded his spear[f (Links to an external site.)] against eight hundred whom he killed at one time.

    And next to him among the three mighty men was Eleazar the son of Dodo, son of Ahohi. He was with David when they defied the Philistines who were gathered there for battle, and the men of Israel withdrew. 10 He rose and struck down the Philistines until his hand was weary, and his hand clung to the sword. And the Lord brought about a great victory that day, and the men returned after him only to strip the slain.

    11 And next to him was Shammah, the son of Agee the Hararite. The Philistines gathered together at Lehi, where there was a plot of ground full of lentils, and the men fled from the Philistines. 12 But he took his stand in the midst of the plot and defended it and struck down the Philistines, and the Lord worked a great victory.

     

    https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=2+Samuel+23&version=ESV (Links to an external site.)

     

     

    Exxon Mobil

    Exxon is clearly meeting their purpose with 37 oil refineries in 21 countries producing a total combined of  6.3 Million barrels daily. In the chart below, you will see that they are #1 in their industry. There structure is great with top leaders, however, I wonder if each facility places concern on climate change and environmental factors?

    ***Click on links to view the charts. 

    http://si.wsj.net/public/resources/images/BA-AR197A_exxon_NS_20091114010422.gif (Links to an external site.)

     

    http://www.heiferphils.org/finaldraft/graphics/org-chart.jpg (Links to

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