Project #88451 - Ethical and Morals in Criminal Justice

Module 2:​Sources of Ethics, Theories of Truth, and Logic as a Tool for Analyzing Moral Decision-Making—Individual Project




• To IDENTIFY AND DESCRIBE the various sources of ethics


• To IDENTIFY AND GIVE AN EXAMPLE of the five theories of truth


• To APPLY logic as a tool to analyze and critique moral reason and decision-making


• To STRUCTURE the components of arguments and how they are related


• To COMPARE AND CONTRAST inductive and deductive reasoning 


• To APPLY the suggested matrix for analyzing and evaluating arguments


• To DIFFERENTIATE valid from invalid arguments


• To DIFFERENTIATE between sound and unsound arguments


• To OUTLINE the various bases for fallacious arguments



A good way to learn to identify and understand sound arguments is to learn how to spot and evaluate bad arguments. To analyze and then evaluate a moral decision, you should proceed to ask the following questions about the argument being made:​

1) What is the argument’s conclusion?
2) What are the premises?
3) Do the premises support the conclusion?
a) Are the premises true? If not, they do not support the conclusion.
b) If true, are the premises relevant to the conclusion? If not, they do not support the conclusion.
c) Are the premises less doubtful than the conclusion? If not, they do not support the conclusion.



1. Read the Introductory lecture notes 
2. Read Chapters 1 and Chapter 2 of the text 
3. Review all posted lecture notes and power points in this module 
4. Select the web links to either the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy or the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy , or both to research and respond to the following questions:



1) Identify and briefly describe the four sources of ethics (12 points)
• Excellent—Accurately identifies and describes all four sources of ethics= 12 points
• Good—Accurately identifies and describes three sources of ethics= 9 points
• Satisfactory—Accurately identifies and describes all two sources of ethics= 6 points
• Developing—Accurately identifies and describes fewer than two sources of ethics= 0-3 points


2) Identify and give an example of each of the five theories of truth â€‹(15 points)
• Excellent—Accurately identifies and gives an example of all five theories= 15 points
• Good—Accurately identifies and gives an example of four theories= 12 points
• Satisfactory—Accurately identifies and gives an example of two or three theories= 6-9 points
• Developing Accurately identifies and gives an example of fewer than two theories= 0-5 points


3) Construct a simple, valid argument that is a sound argument (10 points)
• Excellent—Simple, valid, sound argument= 10 points
• Satisfactory—Simple, valid, unsound argument= 5 points
• Developing—Argument that is not valid= 0-4 points


4) Construct a simple, valid argument that is an unsound argument â€‹(11 pts)
• Excellent—Simple, valid, unsound argument= 11 points
• Developing—Simple, invalid argument= 0 points


(Please do not use any arguments from the text or the lecture notes.  You may, however, review them or search the Internet for models to construct your own arguments.)


A non-sequitur is a bad argument because of its structure, not its language.
Types of non-sequitur arguments include a) pure or formal fallacies, b) fallacies of ambiguity, and c) fallacies of irrelevance. Now, I want you to:

5)​Construct an argument based on any formal fallacy â€‹â€‹â€‹(10 points) 

6)​Construct an argument based any fallacy of ambiguity â€‹â€‹â€‹(11 points)

7)​Construct an argument based on any fallacy of irrelevance â€‹â€‹(11 points) 


TOTAL VALUE â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹â€‹80 POINTS

• Excellent—72-80 points
• Good—64-71 points
• Satisfactory—48-63 points
• Developing— < 48 points

Subject Philosophy
Due By (Pacific Time) 10/22/2015 03:00 pm
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