"The ethos of science is that affectively toned complex of values and norms which is held to be binding on the man of science. The norms are expressed in the form of prescriptions, proscriptions, preferences, and permissions. They are legitimatized in terms of institutional values....Although the ethos of science has not been codified, it can be inferred from the moral consensus of scientists as expressed in use and wont, in countless writings on the scientific spirit and in moral indignation directed toward contraventions of the ethos" (pg.268-269). Merton's norms of science are those of what scientists think they should do and can do. These norms focus on what scientist are supposed to do and not what they actually do. Scientists learn the norms by looking at others in their community to see what is praised and what is frowned upon.
Merton's four norms of science are universalism, 'communism', disinterestedness, and organized skepticism. He thinks these norms are the values shared by the scientific community. Universalism is the idea that scientists have to look at all claims about the world but, not focus on the people behind the claims. Like a famous scientists claim is just as important as the claim from a a scientists at a small college. 'Communism' is not the normal definition of communism but, the idea that scientific knowledge should be shared among the scientific community. Does not matter who came up with what. Disinterestedness is the idea that scientists are not conducting the research for their own benefit but for the greater good. Organized skepticism is basically the idea that relates to universalism. It states that every claim that is made is to be tested to see if it is really true. This mattered to science because it set a guide line basically for scientist so that they conduct their research honestly and not stray from what is expected of them.
|Due By (Pacific Time)
||10/23/2015 11:00 pm