Project #88605 - International MGMT discussion responses

Please answer all 4 post in text citation with references APA format

1.

  • Why are expatriate assignments so important (both for the individual going abroad and the firm)?

Deresky (2013) writes, “In a highly competitive global economy, where the other factors of production—capital, technology, raw materials, and information—are increasingly able to be duplicated, “the caliber of the people in an organization will be the only source of sustainable competitive advantage available” (p. 270).  There is a shortage of good people in upper level management because of the demand in local and foreign companies (p. 270).  As a result, if a company sees good talent, they need to grab the employee up before someone else does, otherwise their efforts to expand their organization may have to be put on hold.  As an expatriate, it is imperative that there is training, mentoring, and adequate support to assist in the transition in order to increase retention of the employee

 

  • If you were to accept an expatriate assignment - what would you seek in a compensation package? 

If I were only going for a short time, I would be more apt to use the home-based method.  This seems the easiest and would give me the option to continue living the same level of lifestyle because additional expenses in salary, taxes, allowances, and benefits are adjusted for (Deresky, 2013, p. 293).  If I were going on an assignment permanently, I may consider using the host-based or going-rate approach.  This method would base my salary on what others in similar positions make within the host country (p. 293).  Ultimately, I would try to do some research to see which would be the best option for my family because it wouldn’t just be me that would have to transition to a new country. 



  • What can firms do to mitigate the failure rate of expatriates and make the foreign assignment more successful?

Firms can screen potential expatriates for intellectually, psychological, and social capital (Deresky, 2013, p. 280).  The expatriate’s family and personal situations are also things to consider.  Certainly, selecting the right candidate plays a role, but there is more to the picture than just this.  Significant planning and preparing must be in place for the expatriate and his or her family members (p. 280).  Additionally, training and attention needs to be given to the spouse as well.   Training in areas like the country’s geography, economics, history, culture, language, sensitivity, and even field experiences will go a long way is making the adjustment easier on expatriates (p. 293).  

 

  • What trends are developing in this area?

I feel we will see countries that were not typically major contenders for expatriates begin to increase the number of expatriates they have living there.  Zheng (2015) notes that China since the economic crisis in 2009, has had rising manufacturing and labor costs along with an increase in cost of living.  Many countries are looking at other options and countries like Malaysia and Vietnam have been popular, cheaper  options.  

 

  • As Christian business professionals, what faith implications are relevant to this topic?

 

Colossians 3:17 (ESV) states, “And whatever you do, in word or deed, do everything in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him”.  Several verses later in Colossians 3:23 Paul writes, “Whatever you do, work heartily, as for the Lord and not for men”.  When I read those verses, I am reminded that wherever we are and whatever our work, no matter how challenging or foreign it may seem, we should do it all for the glory of God.  

 

References 

 

Deresky, H. (2013-01-01). International Management: Managing Across Borders and Cultures, Text and Cases, 8th Edition. [VitalSource Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781269896344/ (Links to an external site.)


Zheng, A. (2015, February 9). Twice As Many Expatriates Leaving China Than Arriving, Moving Company Says. Retrieved October 15, 2015. 

2.Why are expatriate assignments so important (both for the individual going abroad and the firm)?
 

 Answer: Doing international assignments don't come cheap in today global economy. Expatriation is divided into four distinct and important factors: adaption, personal attributes, cultural self-knowledge, and cultural factors. Successful expatriates are successful when they meet goals. These goals are they do not quit their assignment prematurely, they complete their tasks, and they develop and maintain interpersonal ties with employees in the host country. The expatriate’s ability to adjust is more than just a matter of psychological wellbeing in a foreign country, but also a significant assistant to the success of the international assignments. Expatriate failure or loss has been defined as all individuals who either quit or transfer back to the home country prior to the completion of their expected foreign assignments. Expatriate refers to an employee sent by his or her company in one country to manage operations in a different country. Some strategic reason why companies expatriate is transmitting organizational culture to foreign subsidiary, transferring knowledge, improving coordination and functional needs of control, and developing global skills. For the individual this allows them to gain more knowledge, experience, better chances for promotion, pay, and to see the world.

If you were to accept an expatriate assignment - what would you seek in a compensation package?

Answer: For me since I am almost sure I would have a very hard time adjusting I think that I would want a housing allowance, children's school fees, travel allowance, good holiday entitlement, and a high salary.

What can firms do to mitigate the failure rate of expatriates and make the foreign assignment more successful?

Answer: I believe that companies need to focus more on what is expected before and after the job. There does not need to be any false expectations from both the HR and the expatriate. Communication needs to be done before and after each successful trip, and the company needs to have a good repatriation plan in store as well. The main problem is making sure that there each one knows everything, and there is no surprises ahead for either of them. So setting clear, realistic expectations about assignments, compensation of even the after assignments are important. There also should be a mentor relationship between senior executives and expatriates. The main thing is though is to maintain strong, regular communication.

What trends are developing in this area?

Answer: Some trends that are happening with expat assignments is international assignments are increasing. Experts are expecting to see especially large increases in short term assignments and typical long term assignments. There is a rise of global nomads/career expats, that is, people who move from one expat assignment to another. “55% of companies are expecting to see an increase in the number of international assignments to the US, but 5 of the top 8 mobility destinations are developing nations: Brazil, Russia, China, and Mexico. The second most common reason for an expatriate assignment was to support career development so international assignments are proving to be a great career development tool” (Ladimeji, 2013)

As Christian business professionals, what faith implications are relevant to this topic?

Answer: In Galatians 6:10 it says, “So then, as we have opportunity, let us do good to everyone, and especially to those who are of the household of faith”(NIV).  As individuals as we do these assignments overseas I believe that these individuals should be grateful for the opportunity to work overseas, and when they are doing so that they should also do good, and share the Lord’s work. 

References

Deresky, H. (2014). International management: managing across borders and cultures. (8th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

 Ladimeji, K. (2013, April 22). 5 Key Trends in Expatriate Assignments for 2013 (Study and Infographic) - See more at: http://thecareercafe.co.uk/blog/?p=8182#sthash.Zlpv2Hop.dpuf. Retrieved from The Career Cafe: http://thecareercafe.co.uk/blog/?p=8182

3.

  • What are at least 6 major points regarding union representation, bargaining, rights, and worker participation in management should be considered in the labor agreement? Read Chapter 10, particularly the Comparative Management in Focus: Labor relations in Germany and also the Comparative Management in Focus: Motivation in Mexico (found in Chapter 11).
  1. The law of Mitbestimmung’s goal is to keep jobs at home, using collective bargaining to bridge the gap.  Unfortunately, many companies are tired of the restrictions and are moving elsewhere.
  2. The law of Mitbestimmung requires that there is union representation on the supervisory boards for “companies with more than 2,000 employees and “works councils” of employees at every work site. Those companies with 2,000 or more staff have to give employees half the votes; those with 500 employees or more have to give a third of supervisory board seats to union representatives”.  
  3. There are federal mandates in Germany to negotiate things like worker conditions.
  4. Unions have had a decrease in membership and are willing to make concessions or changes if it will offer increased job security. 
  5. IG Metall traditionally would negotiate worker rights like pay, hours, and conditions on a regional basis, but now it does it on a local level in an effort to be more proactive in working with management.
  6. Termination costs are extremely high in Europe and the unions often will not accept the company’s offers (Deresky, 2013, p. 324).

 

  • What are some applicable biblical principles in this situation?

One verse that I found very applicable for this situation is Philippians 2:4 (ESV), “Let each of you look not only to his own interests, but also to the interests of others”.  In this case, it seems like everyone is trying to do what is best for themselves and it ends up in almost a catch-22 like ending.  Unions were mandated to be part of the governance of companies in order to help businesses stay, but the companies are sick of their regulations and want to leave.  Unions want to secure better pay and conditions for their workers, but almost are stuck because they can’t retain their membership, and so they have to give up concessions.  It would be beneficial for both the unions and companies to see the issues from both sides because this often this lends a new perspective. 



Reference


Deresky, H. (2013-01-01). International Management: Managing Across Borders and Cultures, Text and Cases, 8th Edition. [VitalSource Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781269896344/

 

4.What are at least 6 major points regarding union representation, bargaining rights, and worker participation in management should be considered in the labor agreement? Read Chapter 10, particularly the Comparative Management in Focus: Labor relations in Germany and also the Comparative Management in Focus: Motivation in Mexico (found in Chapter 11). 

 

Answer: In our text book there are a couple points that regard union representation, bargaining rights, and worker participation that should be considered in the labor agreement. These six points are the workplace relationships, wages, cultural influence on business practices, cultural influence on communication, the roles of the Union, and the different management styles. These six points should be really important in a labor agreement. Because the workplace should be safe, relationships established, fair wages given, communication channels clear, and how the management styles will affect the people are very important (Deresky, H., 2013).

What are some applicable biblical principles in this situation?

Answer: When looking into the bible about if we can organize labor unions it says nothing that really forbids us from doing so. It is found that Abraham was a confederate with some of the Canaanites, but the scripture doesn't condemn it.  In Genesis 14:13 it says" And there came one that had escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew; for he dwelt in the plain of Mamre the Amorite, brother of Eshcol, and brother of Aner: and these were confederate with Abram (KJV). Even though it doesn't condemn it the scripture does make regards for any organizations such as unions. They must have for it a purpose of growing people, and not hampering the Christian faith. The main purpose was for man to provide for the needs of his family, and to organize with others so that it is lawful, and everyone gets there due.

 

Reference

Deresky, H. (2013). International Management: Managing Across Borders and Cultures, Text and Cases, 8th Edition. [VitalSource Bookshelf version]. Retrieved from http://online.vitalsource.com/books/9781269896344/id/ch10bx7

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