Project #91271 - research proposal

Please help me with my research proposal, I will write down what I have written so far, but it needS a lot of changes.

I must submmit a first 500-1000 words draft, but the final submission must be 1000 words.

Here is the requirements:

The Intoduction must be 150 words.

Bibliographic review: 350 words.

Method: 200 words.

Anticipated results: 200 words.

Discussion: 100 words.



and here is my work:

Noise-induced hearing loss


Excessive noise is a global occupational health problem with social and physiological impacts, including noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Though genetics and advanced age are major risk factors of hearing loss, hearing impairments are becoming more common among young adults and children. The purpose of this research is to study whether workers in factories may experience any noise-induced hearing loss due to their jobs or not.

Literature Review

Modifiable risk factors of hearing loss are voluntary exposure to loud noise and nonuse of hearing protection. (1)

The comparison between the thresholds obtained in two groups of 86 male subjects working situated respectively in a small farming community, and in a medium-sized city with significant levels of noise pollution showed that environmental factors, and urban noise in particular, influence the onset and development of occupational acoustic trauma, and that those working in the country are significantly less affected than those in the city. (2)

A study of noise exposure due to road traffic in Karachi City, Pakistan concluded that, the average value of noise levels to be over 66dB, which could cause serious annoyance according to the World Health Organization (WHO) outdoor noise guidelines. Maximum peak noise was over 101dB, which is close to 110dB, the level that can cause possible hearing impairment according to the WHO guidelines. (3)

Worldwide, 16% of the disabling hearing loss in adults is attributed to occupational noise, ranging from 7% to 21% in the various subregions. Occupational noise is a significant cause of adult-onset hearing loss. On the other hand, the majority of this noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) burden can be minimized by the use of engineering controls to reduce the generation of noise at its source. (4)

While noise is recognized as a hazard, initiatives are required to increase use of effective preventative measures. (5)

The study showed that there was a high prevalence of mild sensorineural hearing loss and significant hearing deterioration among workers, due to exposure to excessive noise over a two-year period. The study demonstrates the practical importance of serial audiometry for noise-exposed workers as a means of monitoring hearing deterioration. It is necessary to enforce existing occupational health laws in our industries in order to prevent noise-induced hearing loss, since it is eminently preventable. (6)

Bibliographic Review:


Subjects of new factory workers will be medically exanimated, and exposed to tonal hearing tests and acoustic impedance tests before they start working in the factory and six months after that. Then, the results will be compared to see whether they experienced any noise-induced hearing loss.

Anticipated Results:

From my literature review we can expect that the workers most likely will experience some noise induced hearing impairment, unless hearing protection measures were available.




1)                  Daniel, E. (2007).

Noise and hearing loss: A review. Journal of School Health, 77, 225–231.

2)                  Abbate, C. (2005).

Influence of environmental factors on the evolution of industrial noise-induced hearing loss. Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 107, 351-361.

3)                  Mehdi, M., & Kim, M., & Seong, J., & Arsalan, M. (2011).

Spatio-temporal patterns of road traffic noise pollution in Karachi, Pakistan. Environment International, 37, 97-104.

4)                  Nelson, D. (2005).

The global burden of occupational noise-induced hearing loss. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 48, 446–458.

5)                  Foluwasayo, E., & Tanimola, M., & Toye, G. (2005).

 Noise exposure, awareness, attitudes and use of hearing protection in a steel rolling mill in Nigeria. Occupational Medicine of Oxford Journals, 55, 487-489.

6)                  Nwawolo, C., & Oyejola, A., & Foluwasayo, E., & Toye, G. (2008).

Deterioration of noise-induced hearing loss among bottling factory workers. The Journal of Laryngology & Otology, 122, 786-794.




Subject English
Due By (Pacific Time) 11/06/2015 12:00 pm
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