A researcher decides to study the effects of dance therapy on selfesteem in emotionally disturbed adolescents. One residential program consents to try the dance therapy treatment, whereas another similar program refuses to try dance therapy, but allows the researcher to measure selfesteem. Selfesteem is measured before and after treatment in both groups. This is an example of a __________ design.
A. multilevel, pretestposttest controlgroup 

B. pretestposttest, natural controlgroup 

C. randomized, pretestposttest, controlgroup 

D. multilevel, randomized, pretestposttest, betweensubjects 

If the pvalue for an Ftest is less than the alpha level chosen in the experimental design phase, you should __________ significant difference between groups.
A. reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is a 

B. reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is no 

C. accept the null hypothesis and conclude that there is a 

D. accept the null hypothesis and conclude that there is no 

Laczniak and Muehling (1993) suggest that manipulations checks should be considered:
A. even before the pilot or pretesting. 

B. after theory tests. 

C. once you have collected data for the main experiment. 

D. after the final development of your manipulations. 

In terms of the Ftest, the value of F is increased by __________ variance.
A. increasing experimental variance and/or decreasing error 

B. decreasing experimental variance and/or increasing error 

C. increasing error 

D. decreasing error variance and/or decreasing experimental 

The basic comparison in singlesubject experimental designs is:
A. between the participant's responses and those of a matched control. 

B. between the same participant's own pretreatment and posttreatment responses. 

C. between the posttreatment responses of the participant and those of a matched control. 

D. a comparison between the real and the ideal responses. 

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a withinsubjects design?
A. Each participant is tested under each experimental condition. 

B. The scores in each condition are correlated with each other. 

C. Each participant is measured only once on the dependent variable. 

D. The critical comparison is the difference between correlated groups on the dependent variable. 

Singlesubject designs are sometimes preferable to betweensubjects group comparison designs because:
A. independent variables cannot be manipulated in betweensubjects group comparison designs. 

B. singlesubject designs have greater external validity. 

C. important information about the way individuals perform is lost when summarizing group information. 

D. None of the above (singlesubject designs are never preferable to betweensubjects designs) 

In withinsubjects designs, each participant:
A. is measured at least five times. 


B. serves as his or her own control. 


C. is measured only once. 


D. is randomly assigned to one of two conditions.
Singlesubject experimental designs are variations of withinsubject designs because the same:
Which of the following is NOT an example of a common usage of singlesubject designs?



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