Project #94847 - Obesity and Health exam but with information from attachment

  

HP 430 Exam Two

True or False (2 points each):

T / F : Type I diabetes is a reversible auto-immune disease that results from pancreatic beta cell overproduction. 

T / F : Gestational diabetes is diagnosed in approximately 3-8% of all pregnancies in the U.S.

T / F : 50% of women diagnosed with gestational diabetes will develop Type I diabetes.

T / F : The U.S. has the highest rates of global fructose and Coca Cola consumption. 

 

Short answer: Note-all short answer questions should be answered in 5 sentences or less.

 

High sugar intake can lead to a variety of dangerous metabolic and physiological effects. What are some examples of diseases that can develop as a result of high sugar intake? Please list at least two diseases discussed in lecture and describe the physiological and metabolic characteristics of these diseases and how they relate to high sugar intake (3 points).

 

Explain why the metabolic response that results from high sugar intake may be exacerbated by obesity? (3 points)

 

What is causing obesity in the U.S.? Give at least two examples given in the lecture and propose potential solutions. (3 points)

 

Calculate the BMI (kg/) of a 22 year old woman with a height of 5”7’ and weight of 168 lbs. Categorize her as underweight, normal, over weight, obese, severely obese, or morbidly obese. (2 points)

 

BMI = ________________ ; Category = ________________ 

 

 

In general, how much weight loss (in kg) would this person need to prevent Type 2 diabetes (2 points)?

 

Why might BMI inaccurately categorize an individual who is at a healthy weight as overweight or obese (2 points)?

 

In one or two sentences, please suggest a way to increase the effectiveness of BMI calculations (2 points)

 

List the major dietary macronutrients in order from least to greatest in terms of their effect on hunger satiation. Provide a brief (1-2 sentences) description of each macronutrient. (3 points)

 

Why does the medium fat diet pose few safety concerns, good efficacy and results, and useful for weight loss maintenance? Compare the effectiveness of a medium fat diet to another diet discussed in lecture. (3 points)

 

Briefly describe 3 ways that increased body fat might contribute to type 2 diabetes (4 points)

 

Bariatric surgery is an effective method for treating obesity. Please provide a brief description of one type of bariatric surgery and how it compares to others. What are some potential negative health consequences associated with this treatment method in obese populations? What are the benefits of this treatment method? (4 points)

 

What is the US minority group that is at the highest risk for developing Type II diabetes? Why? Give an example of how we can use this information to develop a population specific diabetes prevention program. Be specific in your proposed intervention. (5 points)

 

Please demonstrate your understanding of how Type 2 diabetes develops by summarizing the chain of events that occur after prolonged exposure to high levels of sugar (glucose) intake. Please include the following vocabulary: glucose, insulin, pancreas, beta cells, hyperglycemia. Labeled diagrams will be accepted. (5 points)

 

In 1971, Secretary of Agriculture Earl Butz introduced subsidy programs that greatly influenced the work of American farmers. Please discuss the significance of these subsidies and their connection to America’s obesity epidemic. In your discussion please be sure to mention high fructose corn syrup, food pricing and accessibility, and the hormone Leptin. (5 points)

 

According to the film The Men Who Made Us Fat, how has our environment changed to reinforce an obesity epidemic and why are we “losing the war against obesity”? Use specific examples mentioned in the film to justify your answer. (5 points)

 

Describe the presence of fructose in the US food supply. What is driving this shift? (3 points)

 

What are some of the negative global impacts of the rising level of high fructose corn syrup consumption? Describe its relevance to obesity. (3 points)

 

Compare the chemical composition of glucose and fructose. How does the chemical composition of each sugar impact their use in food production and how do these 2 sugars differ in their effects on the body? (5 points)

 

Fill in the blank:

How long would an individual be expected to survive if he or she weighs 165 lbs., with a body percent fat of 30%, and minimal energy needs of 1600 k cal/day? Show all of your work. (3 point)

 

The individual would be expected to survive _______ days.

 

 

To be considered overweight, an individual’s excess fat accumulation must result in body weight that exceeds desirable weight by approximately _______% to _______%. Obesity is characterized by excess fat accumulation resulting in body weight that exceeds desirable weight by approximately _______% or more. (3 points)

 

Diabetes is a group of diseases characterized by _______ blood glucose levels and the _______production of insulin. ). Describe how a clinician would go about diagnosing a patient with type 2 diabetes (3 points)

 

For sustainable health benefits, it is recommended that individuals exercise _______hour(s) of moderate intensity and _______hour(s) of vigorous intensity aerobic exercise per week. (3 points)

 

Multiple Choice (2 points each).

Welsh et al found a variety of risk factors associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Please elect the one that was NOT indicated by the study.

Age

BMI

African American descent

Sex (male)

Welsh et. all found all the above to be associated with NAFLD

 

In Nicole Avena’s TED talk titled How Sugar Effects the Brain she discusses how sugar activates our brain’s reward system. According to her lecture, where does our reward system reside in the brain?

Thalamus

Hippocampus

Cerebral cortex

Cerebellum

None of the above 

 

Insulin is produced by which organ

Liver

Muscle

Pancreas

Gall Bladder

All of the above

 

High blood glucose levels can cause all of these problems except NOT:

Heart disease

Stroke 

Blindness

Liver failure

Kidney failure

 

Insulin regulates uptake of glucose into which tissues:

Muscle

Liver

Brain

Fat

All of the above

 

Matching (2 points each)

Please match each levels of adiposity to its appropriate definition

  

 

 

Subject Medicine
Due By (Pacific Time) 11/21/2015 02:00 pm
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