Project #96095 - Englishthe benefits of taking medication for children with adhd

Surrogate parenting is a controversial practice in which a woman becomes pregnant and carries a child to term for another person or couple. In doing so, the woman makes the miracle of parenthood possible for people who are biologically or ethically unable to give birth. At the same time, the surrogate can earn a much-needed fee for providing her services. For these reasons, legal restrictions should not be part of this very personal and private transaction, but the United States should adopt a code of ethics pertaining to surrogacy. SUPPORTING POINT 1 Surrogacy should not be illegal because it benefits parents who want children, but who are unable to conceive. Problems such as infertility and genetic diseases can prohibit couples from having children; other couples may be in same-sex relationships. Approximately one in ten women are unable to conceive children without medical intervention (Office on Women’s Health, 2009). People who are carriers of genetic diseases may wish to avoid passing these genes on to biological offspring, and may seek other methods of reproduction. Same-sex couples can choose to use a surrogate to have a child that is genetically related to one of the couple. SUPPORTING POINT 2 A singular code of ethics would help to alleviate confusion and potential misunderstandings due to differing guidelines from state to state. Only Washington, DC currently bans surrogacy entirely, while five other states (AZ, IN, MI, NY, NE) have heavy restrictions on surrogacy (Hinson & McBrien, 2011). The need for a code of ethics is demonstrated by the poorly regulated surrogacy industry in India, which disproportionately takes advantage of poor women and contributes to the country’s high maternal mortality rate (Jaiswal, 2012, p. 4). A panel of social workers, medical professionals, lawyers, and women who have participated in gestational surrogacy could develop guidelines. A code of ethics recognized throughout the entire U.S. would provide a common starting point for anyone interested in any aspect of surrogacy. SUPPORTING POINT 3 Surrogacy programs in other countries have been ethical and successful when clear guidelines are in place. In countries such as Australia, that have comprehensive but liberal guidelines regarding surrogacy, there is a positive perception of surrogacy among the general population (Constantinidis & Cook, 2012). A highly monitored surrogacy program in the Netherlands has shown to provide a positive experience, with virtually no long-term negative outcomes, for all parents involved in surrogacy arrangements (Dermout, van de Weil, Heintz, Jansen, & Ankum, 2009). Other countries have shown that a clear understanding of the ethical implications of surrogacy is key to making the process beneficial and non-damaging for everyone involved. COUNTER-ARGUMENT 1 Families may not feel the same affection toward a child born to a surrogate mother. There is a natural bond that exists between mother and child that these families would be missing. Children may register the difference between their origin and that of more traditional families and become distant as a result. The pregnancy period allows families to adjust to and prepare for the birth of the baby emotionally. This natural period of preparation would not be present in these families. RESPONSE TO COUNTER-ARGUMENT 1 While the feelings of extended family members cannot be accounted for, the immediate family would not feel differently toward the child than they would toward an adopted child, a stepchild, etc. Recent studies have shown that children born to surrogate mothers are just as well-adjusted and emotionally stable as children born typically (Glombok, Readings, Blake, Casy, & Marks, 2011). Because surrogacy is a much more intentional and planned path to parenthood than natural conception can be, potential parents could have time to consider their emotions and feelings toward prospective children. COUNTER-ARGUMENT 2 Surrogate mothers can be taken advantage of, because there is a higher value placed on the baby’s needs than on the woman’s. If the United States adopts ethical guidelines for surrogacy, all parties involved would be aware of the appropriate rights and responsibilities during and after the pregnancy. A woman would be a surrogate of her own free will, and would be able to set the terms of the relationship and the compensation before a pregnancy is started. RESPONSE TO COUNTER-ARGUMENT 2 If the United States adopts ethical guidelines for surrogacy, all parties involved would be aware of the appropriate rights and responsibilities during and after the pregnancy. A woman would be a surrogate of her own free will, and would be able to set the terms of the relationship and the compensation before a pregnancy is started. CONCLUSION PARAGRAPH As many people wait until they are nearing the end of their reproductive life to have children, it will be increasingly important for our society to understand the full benefits and implications of alternative means of assisted reproduction, such as surrogacy. It is clear that unregulated surrogacy can result in serious ethical, legal, and physical problems for those involved. However, surrogacy arrangements made with care and with the well-being of all involved at the forefront are generally beneficial to all parties. The United States should be proactive in creating a set of parameters to guide the ethical aspects of surrogacy. This will ensure that the growing surrogacy industry has a foundation of strong ethical guidelines in place to protect surrogate mothers, potential parents, and the children resulting from surrogacy arrangements. REFERENCES LIST Constantinidis, D., & Cook, R. (2012). Australian perspectives on surrogacy: The influence of cognitions, psychological and demographic characteristics. Human Reproduction, 27, 1080–1087. Dermout, S., van de Weil, H., Heintz, P., Jansen, K., & Ankum, W. (2009). Non-commercial surrogacy: An account of patient management in the first Dutch centre for IVF surrogacy, from 1997 to 2004. Human Reproduction, 25, 443–449. Glombok, S., Readings, J., Blake, L., Casy, P., & Marks, A. (2011). Families created through surrogacy: Mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment at age 7. Developmental Psychology, 47, 1579–1588. Hinson, D., & McBrien, M. (2011). Surrogacy across America. Family Advocate, 34(2), 32. Jaiswal, S. (2012). Commercial surrogacy in India: An ethical assessment of existing legal scenario from the perspective of women’s autonomy and reproductive rights. Gender Technology and Development, 16, 1–28. Office on Women’s Health. (2009, July 1). Infertility: Frequently asked questions. Retrieved from http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact- sheet/infertility.pdf

full sentence outline will build on the information you presented in your research proposal. Following the format described in the “Outline Format and Example” lecture in this module, you will write an introduction paragraph for your essay, outline topic sentences for each supporting point, list sub-points to be included in each paragraph, detail and address counter-arguments to your thesis, and write a conclusion paragraph for your paper. In addition, you will be utilizing your research sources to provide additional support for your thesis statement.

This assignment represents a crucial step toward the development of your final paper. To ensure you complete your outline thoroughly and accurately, keep the following tips in mind:

  • Review the Outline Format and Example reading and the rubric before you begin to ensure you address all necessary requirements.
  • Use complete sentences at all stages of your outline to clearly convey your ideas.
  • Incorporate information from your sources where appropriate, remembering to always use citations to credit others’ words and ideas.
  • Organize your points in a way that makes sense for your particular topic.
  • Follow APA formatting guidelines for your in-text citations and references list.
  • Check your work for spelling, grammar, and sentence structure errors before submitting.

By Wednesday, November 11, 2015, using the previously discussed format from the online course content, “Outline Format and Example,” create a full sentence outline and submit it to the M3: Assignment 3 Dropbox. Use the file-naming format: LastName_First Intitial_ENG101_M3_A3Outline.

Assignment 3 Grading Criteria
Maximum Points
Assignment Components
Essay in required format
16
Introduction Paragraph
20
Three main Supporting Points
24
Sub-Points to elaborate on each Supporting Point
24
Counter-Arguments
20
Response to Counter-Arguments
20
Conclusion Paragraph
20
References List
12
Writing Components
Organization
12
Usage and Mechanics—Grammar, Spelling, Sentence structure
12
APA Elements—Attribution, Paraphrasing, Quotations
16
Style—Audience, Word Choice
4
Total:
200


Subject English
Due By (Pacific Time) 11/25/2015 12:00 am
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